Introduction. Issues associated with pesticide toxicology and arthropod natural enemies in the pre- and post-registration stages of chemical development. Defining the problem. The initiative of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group pesticides and beneficial organisms. Reducing insecticide use in plant protection in Israel: policy and programmes. Pesticides and natural enemies: Malaysia perspectives. The European situation. Risk assessment and management. Standard laboratory methods to test the side effects of pesticides (initial and persistence) on Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal (Hym., Trichogrammatidae). Development and ring-testing of a standardised laboratory test for parasitic wasps, using the aphid-specific parasitoid, Aphidius rhopalosiphi. Current status of a ring-tested method to determine pesticide effects on the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri (Scheuten) (acarina: Phytoseiidae) in the laboratory. Testing side effects of pesticides on carabid beetles - a standardised method for testing ground dwelling predators in the laboratory for registration purposes. Testing side effects of pesticides on spiders (Pardosa spp.) in the laboratory. Two-step system using the plant dwelling non-target insect Coccinella septempunctata to generate data for registration of pesticides. Side-effects of pesticides on larvae of Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): actual state of t he laboratory method. Worst case laboratory testing methods for the evaluation of the effect of pesticides on the predatory bug Orius laevigatus. Field studies with pesticides and non-target arthropods in orchards. Accuracy and efficiency of sequential pesticide testing protocols for phytoseiid mites. Using a sequential testing scheme under laboratory and field conditions with the bumble bee Bombus terrestris to evaluate the safety of different groups of insecticides. Testing effects of pesticides on adult carabid beetlesin semi-field and field experiments. The value of large-scale field trials for determining the effects of pesticides on the non-target arthropod fauna of cereal crops. Comparing pesticide effects on beneficials in a sequential testing scheme. Aims and consequences of regulatory risk management in Europe &endash; a discussion. Effects of plant protection products on beneficial organisms &endash; the current authorisation procedure in Germany. Labelling and risk management strategies for pesticides and terrestrial non-target arthropods &endash; a UK proposal. Pesticides and beneficial arthropods &endash; an industry perspective. Honey bees in Europe &endash; lessons for other terrestrial non-target arthropods. Risk assessment and management &endash; is it working? an NGO perspective. Comparative impact of insecticide treatments on beneficial invertebrates in conventional and integrated farming systems. Relative toxicity of pesticides to pest and beneficial insects in potato crops in Victoria, Australia. The MAFF SCARAB project: seven years of pesticide side-effects research on arthropods. A dynamic risk assessment for beneficial insects in cereal canopies. Implications of insecticide resistance for interactions between pests, natural enemies and pesticides. Extrapolating pesticide side effects from beneficial arthropods to other non-target invertebrates &endash; how much do we know? Application of pheromones: toxicological aspects, effects on beneficials and state of registration. The importance of the population perspective for the evaluation of side-effects of pesticides on beneficial species. The Asian initiative in pesticides and beneficials testing. The impact of locust and grasshopper control on beneficial arthropods in West Africa. Impact of insecticides on pest and natural enemy communities in tropical rice ecosystems. Development of decision making tools for vegetable farmers in SE Asia.
Following the original initiative of the International Organisation for Biological Control some 15 years ago, research groups and agrochemical companies have been investigating the effects of pesticides on beneficial organisms, devising laboratory and field test methods and lately developing protocols for regulatory testing requirements in Europe.
This work, and the application of agreed protocols for testing, is of crucial importance to the environmentally acceptable use of pesticides and to the further development of Integrated Pest Management systems, and the objective of this book is to review the origins and progress of the research - what has been accomplished, what is the current position and what still needs to be done.
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