Part I: The Distribution, Population Status and Management of Beavers in Europe. 1. Beaver Management and Utilization in Scandinavia; G. Hartman. 2. Management of the North American Beaver (Castor canadensis) on the South-Savo Game Management District, Finland (1983-1997); S. Härkönen. 3. Reintroduction of the Beaver, Castor fiber, in The Netherlands; V.A.A. Dijkstra. 4. The Beaver in Russia and Adjoining Countries: Recent Trends in Resource Changes and Management Problems; A.P. Saveljev, V.G. Safonov. 5. Beaver Management in the Baltic States; M. Balodis, et al. 6. The Reintroduction of European Beaver, Castor fiber, in Poland: A Success Story; R. Dzieciolowski, J. Gozdziewski. 7. The Austrian Beaver, Castor fiber, Reintroduction Program; J. Sieber. 8. Origin, Present Conditions, and Future Prospects of the Slovakian Beaver Population; K. Pachinger, T. Hulik. 9. Beavers in an Urban Landscape: The Recent Activity of Beavers, Castor fiber, in the Greater Bratislava Area; K. Pachinger, T. Hulik. 10. A Biochemical-Genetic Discrimination Method for the Two Beaver Species, Castor fiber and Castor canadensis, as a Tool for Conservation; J. Sieber, et al. 11. Ecological Restoration by Harnessing the Work of Beavers; Y.A. Gorshkov, et al. 12. Beavers in Britain: Planning Reintroduction; D.W. Macdonald, F.H. Tattersall. 13. Beaver: A New Prey of Wolves in Latvia? Comparison of Winter and Summer Diet on Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758; Ž. Andersone. Part II:North American Beaver Behavior, Population Dynamics, and Management Considerations. 14. Understanding North American Beaver Behavior as an Aid to Management; B.A. Schulte, D. Müller-Schwarze. 15. Foraging Behavior of Beavers (Castor canadensis), Plant Secondary Compounds, and Management Concerns; J.M. Basey. 16. Long-Term Population Dynamics of the North American Beaver, Castor canadensis, on Quabbin Reservation, Massachusetts, and Sagehen Creek, California; P.E. Busher, P.J. Lyons. 17. Behavioral and Ecological Characteristics of a `Climax' Population of Beaver (Castor canadensis); D. Müller-Schwarze, B.A. Schulte.
By the end of the 19th century both beaver species had been extirpated from large portions of their native ranges. The global decline in beaver populations was the direct re sult of exploitation by humans. Now, at the end of the 20th century, protection, manage ment, and reintroduction programs, coupled with a decline in the demand for beaver fur and other products, have allowed beaver populations to increase dramatically. Since bea vers actively modify their local environment their activities can conflict with human land use. Because of this, the beaver, once considered a unique and exotic component of wet lands, is now often considered a nuisance species. The history, as well as the current status, of beaver populations in Europe and North America provide insight into how con servation programs work, and into how humans and wildlife interact. The initial plenary lecture of the Euro-American Mammal Congress (July, 1998) was presented by Dr. Michael L. Rosenzweig, a professor at the University of Arizona. Dr. Rosenzweig discussed how humans have used and continue to use natural resources, in cluding wildlife and wildland. He provided evidence indicating that the current model of reservation conservation could not provide a long-term solution to the human-wild life/wildland conflict. Dr. Rosenzweig emphasized that what is required is a move away from purely exploitive activities (I would call this exploitive ecology) and the develop ment of a reconciliation ecology with wildlife.
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