1. Plant Cell and Tissue Culture for Food Ingredient Production: An Introduction.- 2. Plant Secondary Metabolism: Control Points and Prospects for Genetic Manipulation of Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis.- 3. Production of Aromatic Amino Acid Derivatives through Metabolic Engineering of Crop Plants.- 4. Vanillin Biosynthetic Pathways: An Overview.- 5. Quantification of Metabolic Fluxes for Metabolic Engineering of Plant Products.- 6. Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Rosmarinic Acid in Plant Cell Cultures.- 7. Overview of Yield Improvement Strategies for Secondary Metabolite Production in Plant Cell Culture.- 8. Novel Approaches to Improve Plant Secondary Metabolite Production.- 9. Elicitation-Manipulating and Enhancing Secondary Metabolite Production.- 10. The Selectivity by Plant Biotransformation.- 11. Production of Betalains by Hairy Root Cultures of Beta vulgaris L.- 12. Yield Improvement in Plant Cell Cultures by In Situ Extraction.- 13. Reactor Design for Root Culture: Oxygen Mass Transfer Limitations.- 14. Medium Recycling as an Operational Strategy to Increase Plant Secondary Metabolite Formation: Continuous Taxol Production.- 15. Production of Bioactive Metabolites by Cell and Tissue Cultures of Marine Macroalgae in Bioreactor Systems.- 16. Trichosanthes kirilowii Plant Cell Culture in a 5 Liter Bioreactor.- 17. Economic Considerations for Food Ingredients Produced by Plant Cell and Tissue Culture.- 18. Commercial Production of Ginseng by Plant Tissue Culture Technology.- 19. Achieving Economic Feasibility for Moderate-Value Food and Flavor Additives: A Perspective on Productivity and Proposal for Production Technology Cost Reduction.- 20. Plant Cell and Tissue Culture for Food Ingredient Production: Safety Considerations.- 21. The Safety Assessment of Flavor Ingredients Derived from Plant Cell and Tissue Culture.- 22. European Guidelines for Safety Evaluation of Flavourings Produced by Plant Tissue Culture.- 23. Food Ingredients from Plant Cell and Tissue Culture: Regulatory Considerations.- 24. Regulatory Issues: Canadian Perspective.- 25. Regulations for Plant Cell Culture Derived Products in Japan.
Commercial development of cultured-derived food ingredients has attracted interna tional interest. As consumers have become more health conscious in recent years, the de mand for natural food ingredients and disease-preventative phytochemicals has increased tremendously. Plant Cell and Tissue Culture provides an alternative method for controlled production of these products. A wide range of food ingredients has been shown to be pro duced in culture. Much progress has been made in advancing this technology to the point that large-scale production has become possible. This book is developed from the Symposium "Plant Cell and Tissue Culture for Food Ingredient Production" which was held on April 13-17, 1997 at the American Chemical So ciety National Meeting in San Francisco, CA. In this book, international experts in acade mia, government, and industry discuss current advances in the field of plant cell and tissue culture with special emphasis on its application for food ingredient production. Topics re lated to various aspects of plant cell and tissue culture technology are discussed, including overviews of recent advances in plant metabolic pathway studies, process development for improving yields, and bioreactor design and operation for large-scale production. Economic considerations and issues related to the commercial development of culture-derived food in gredients are discussed. Also included are the safety assessment schemes and regulatory frameworks set up by regulatory agencies around the world.
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