7. Interactions of Scandium and Yttrium within Cells, Cellular Organelles, and Tissues.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Membrane Interactions.- 7.3 Interactions with Cells and Cellular Organelles.- 7.4 Interactions with Antibodies.- 7.5 Interactions with Tissues and Organs.- 7.6 Summary.- References.- 8. Biochemistry and Physiology of Scandium and Yttrium.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Cytological and Morphological Patterns.- 8.3 Biochemistry in Lower Organisms (Monera, Protoctista, Fungi).- 8.4 Biochemistry in Plants.- 8.5 Biochemistry in Lower Animals (Mollusca, Arthropoda).- 8.6 Biochemistry in Fish and Birds.- 8.7 Biochemistry in Mammals.- 8.7.1 Metabolism of Extravascular Entrance.- 8.7.2 Metabolism of Soluble Intravascular Administration.- 8.7.3 Metabolism of Insoluble Forms.- 8.7.4 Metabolism of Chelated Forms.- 8.8 Biochemistry in Humans.- 8.9 Nutrition and Diet.- 8.10 Involvement in Enzymes and in Main and Secondary Metabolism.- 8.11 Membranes and Transport.- 8.12 Involvement in Physiological Processes.- 8.13 Patterns in Disease and Pathological Conditions.- 8.14 Effects on Genetic and Immunologic Processes.- 8.15 Comparison to Lanthanides, Aluminum, and Other Trace Elements.- 8.16 Essentiality, Hormesis, and Other Theoretical and Practical Approaches.- 8.17 Summary.- References.- 9 Toxicology, Carcinogenicity, and Pharmacology of Scandium and Yttrium.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Toxic Effects on Microorganisms.- 9.3 Toxic Effects on Plants.- 9.4 Toxic Effects on Animals.- 9.5 Acute Toxicity.- 9.6 Chronic Toxicity.- 9.7 Toxic Ocular and Skin Effects.- 9.8 Toxic Effects on Heart, Liver, Lung, and Other Organs.- 9.9 Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Toxicity.- 9.10 Pathologic Effects.- 9.11 Genetic Effects.- 9.12 Immunologic Effects.- 9.13 Pharmacological Effects.- 9.14 Toxic Effects on Humans.- 9.15 Carcinogenicity, Mutagenicity, and Teratogenicity.- 9.16 Radiotoxicity.- 9.17 Hazard, Occupational, and Environmental Impacts.- 9.18 Summary.- References.- 10 Biochemical and Other Techniques that Employ Yttrium and Scandium. Outlook.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Stable and Radioactive Isotopes as Markers in Nutrition Research.- 10.3 Mimicking Action of Calcium Cellular Fluxes and Metabolism.- 10.4 Blood Flow and Microsphere Therapy.- 10.5 Radiolabeling of Antibodies and Other Compounds.- 10.6 Other Biochemical and Medical Applications.- 10.7 Biological, Agricultural, and Environmental Applications.- 10.8 Applications in Industry and Technology.- 10.9 Outlook.- References.- Suggested Further Reading.
Biochemistry of Scandium and Yttrium gathers together existing knowledge about scandium and yttrium from a wide variety of disciplines. Part 2 addresses the biochemical aspects of these two elements, and the various medical and environmental applications. (Part 1 presents a comparative study of the physical and chemical properties of scandium and yttrium, looking at both their similarities and their differences.) While these elements are relatively rare in nature, these books will show that they have unusual physical and chemical properties, and a disproportionate number of important applications.
Improved analytical techniques have revealed that scandium and yttrium are present throughout living matter, even though only a relatively limited number of species have been analyzed so far. This fact of course has far-ranging implications for biological and environmental concerns.
The major impacts of scandium and yttrium in science, technology, and medicine will be of interest to a wide variety of researchers, including geochemists, inorganic and organic chemists, clinical biochemists, and those specializing in environmental protection.
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