Session I: Breastfeeding and Maternal-Neonatal Interactions. Epidemiological Aspects of Breastfeeding.- Characteristics of Human Milk Antibodies and Their Effect in Relation to the Epidemiology of Breastfeeding and Infections in a Developing Country.- T Cell Development in the Fetus and Neonate.- Growth Factors and the Development of Neonatal Host Defense.- Session II: Development of the Neonatal Immune System.- Amniotic Fluid: The First Feeding of Mucosal Immune Factors.- Ontogeny of the Secretory IgA System in Humans.- IgA-Secreting Cells in the Blood of Premature and Term Infants: Normal Development and Effect of Intrauterine Infections.- Development of T Cells with Memory Phenotype in Infancy.- The Effect of Human Milk, Protein-Fortified Human Milk and Formula on Immunologic Factors of Newborn Infants.- Ontogeny of the Mucosal Immune Response in Children.- Session III: Function of Cytokines in the Development of the Immune System.- Are Cytokines in Human Milk?.- The Developing Gastrointestinal Tract and Milk-Borne Epidermal Growth Factor.- Growth Factor Signal Transduction in Human Intestinal Cells.- Role of IL-6 in Human Antigen-Specific and Polyclonal IgA Responses.- Immunological Properties and Differentiation Potential of Human Colostral Lymphocytes of B Cell Lineage.- Session IV: Innate Immune Factors.- The Effects of Colostrum on Neutrophil Function: Decreased Deformability with Increased Cytoskeleton-Associated Actin.- Peroxidases in Human Milk.- Lactoferrin Binding to Its Intestinal Receptor.- Free Fatty Acids and Monoglycerides: Anti-Infective Agents Produced During the Digestion of Milk Fat by the Newborn.- The Role of Milk-Derived Antimicrobial Lipids as Antiviral and Antibacterial Agents.- Anti-Adhesive Molecules in Human Milk.- The Effect of Human Milk on the Adherence of Enterohemorrhagic E. Coli to Rabbit Intestinal Cells.- Session V: Specific Immune Factors.- Identification and Use of Protective Monoclonal IgA Antibodies Against Viral and Bacterial Pathogens.- Production and Use of Monoclonal IgA Antibodies Complexed with Recombinant Secretory Component for Passive Mucosal Protection.- Epithelial Transport of IgA Immune Complexes.- Association of Human Milk SIgA Antibodies with Maternal Intestinal Exposure to Microbial Antigens.- Serum and Breast Milk Antibodies to Food Antigens In African Mothers And Relation To Their Diet.- Modulation of the Immune Response by Maternal Antibody.- Maternal Determinants of Neonatal Immune Response: Effect of Anti-Idiotype in the Neonate.- Immunoglobulin G Subclasses in Human Colostrum and Milk.- Secretory Defenses Against Giardia Lamblia.- Session VI: Antiviral Immunity.- Epidemiological Perspective of Breastfeeding and Acute Respiratory Illnesses in Infants.- Serotypes of Rotavirus That Infect Infants Symptomatically and Asymptomatically.- Immune Response to Rotavirus Vaccines Among Breast-FED and Nonbreast-FED Children.- Recent Advances in Development of a Rotavirus Vaccine for Prevention of Severe Diarrheal Illness of Infants and Young Chiuldren.- Rotavirus Specific Breast Milk Antibody in Two Populations and Possible Correlates of Protection.- Human Milk and HIV Infection: Epidermiologic and Laboratory Data.- Characterization of a Human Milk Factor That Inhibits Binding of HIV GP120 to Its CD4 Receptor.- Breast Milk Transmission of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection.- Antibody Responses to Cytomegalovirus in Serum and Milk of Newly Delivered Mothers.- Protection of Neonatal Mice from Fatal Reovirus Infection by Immune Serum and Gut Derived Lymphocytes.- Passive Immune Protection from Diarrhea Caused by Rotavirus or E. Coli: an Animal Model to Demonstrate and Quantitate Efficacy.- Session VII: Antibacterial Immunity.- The Antibody Response in Infants after Colonization of the Intestine with E. Coli O83. Artificial Colonization Used as a Prevention Against Nosocomial Infections.- Antibodies to Streptococci Pneumoniae in Sera and Secretions of Mothers and Their Infants.- The Potential Impact of Group B Streptococcal Antibodies in Breast Milk.- IgA Proteases of Hemophilus Influenzae Dividing in Human Milk are Inhibited by IgA1 Antibody in the Milk.- Bovine Lactogenic Immunity Against Pediatric Enteropathogens.- Milk Secretory IgA Related to Shigella Virulence Antigens.- Cortisone Strengthens the Intestinal Mucosal Barrier in a Rodent Necrotizing Enterocolitis Model.- The Relevance of Immunoglobulin in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis.- Strategies for the Preveniton of Food Allergic Associated Atopic Disease.- Session VII: Milk and Food Allergy.- Secretory Antibodies to Cow Milk Proteins and to Respiratory Syncytial Virus.- Characterization of Cow Milk Proteins In Human Milk: Kinetics, Size Distribution, And Possible Relation To Atopy.- Transfer of Enterally Administered Proteins from Lactating Mouse to Neonate: The Potential Role of Environmental Contamination.- Levels of IgA and Cow Milk Antibodies in Breast Milk VS. The Development of Atopy in Children. Low Colostral IgA Associated with Cow Milk Allergy.- Sensitization VIA The Breast Milk.- Management of Infants with Cow Milk Allergy.- Breast Milk and Special Formulas in Prevention of Milk Allergy.- Atopy Prophylaxis in High-Risk Infants.- Natural History and Immunological Markers in Children with Cow Milk Allergy.- IgG, IgA, and IgE Antibodies to Cow Milk Proteins in an Allergy Prevention Study.- The Clinical Expression of Allergy in Breast-Fed Infants.- Author Index.
In the course of history, humans have attempted to interrupt the physiological and psychological bond formed between a nursing mother and her child by substituting breastfeeding with artificial formulas. A growing body of evidence indicates that breast milk, quite apart from its unsurpassed nutritive value, contains a large number of substances that protect the offspring from common infectious agents and allergens and promote the maturation of the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system. In addition to well described milk antibodies and soluble mediators of innate immunity, milk cells and pluripotent secreted factors - cytokines - are currently in the forefront of extensive research with respect to their importance in milk immunology. The purpose of this conference was to critically evaluate the current state of our knowledge concerning the protective role of immune agents found in milk, to provide up-to-date information of milk factors with respect to their role in the maturation of immunological defense systems in the neonate, and to reassess the importance of breastfeeding in the prevention of allergies in formula-fed infants. We hope that the work presented by international participants will prompt many new ideas and stimulate further research in this important area. This conference was sponsored primarily by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. We would like to thank Drs. Sumner Yaffe and Delbert Dayton for their efforts with the organization, planning, and support of this conference.
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