1 Bread the product.- Quality characteristics of bread.- The character of bread.- Bread flavour.- Bread types.- Assessing bread quality.- External character.- Internal character.- Texture/eating quality and flavour.- Nutritional qualities of bread and its consumption.- Conclusions.- References.- 2 Breadmaking processes.- Functions of the breadmaking process.- Cell creation and control.- Major breadmaking process groups.- Straight dough bulk fermentation.- Yeast level.- Flours.- Water levels.- Optional ingredients.- Process variations.- Creation of bubble structure.- Sponge and dough.- Role of the sponge.- Formulations.- Improvers.- Flours and other ingredients.- Process variations.- Rapid processing.- Activated Dough Development (ADD).- No-time doughs with spiral mixers.- The Dutch green dough process.- Role of improvers and other ingredients in rapid processing.- Mechanical dough development.- Chorleywood Bread Process (CBP).- Breadmaking processes, bread variety and bread quality.- References.- 3 Functional ingredients.- Dough conditioners and their composition.- Ingredients.- Fats.- Soya flour.- Additives.- Emulsifiers.- Flour treatment agents.- Preservatives.- Processing aids.- Enzymes.- Alpha-amylases.- Hemicellulases.- Proteinases.- Novel enzyme systems.- Summary of small ingredients.- Bakers yeast.- Where does yeast come from?.- Principal forms of yeast.- Other yeasts.- Biology of yeast cells.- Overview of commercial yeast production.- Baking with yeast.- Conclusion.- References.- 4 Mixing and dough processing.- Functions of mixing.- Types of mixer.- CBP-compatible mixers.- High-speed and twin-spiral mixers.- Spiral mixers.- Low-speed mixers.- Continuous mixers.- Dough transfer systems.- Dough make-up plant.- Dividing.- Dough damage during dividing.- Two-stage oil suction divider.- Extrusion dividers.- Single-stage vacuum dividers.- Rounding and premoulding.- Types and shapes of rounders.- Conical rounders.- Cylindrical rounders.- Rounding belts.- Reciprocating rounders.- Non-spherical premoulding.- Intermediate or first proving.- Pocket-type prover.- First prover charging methods.- Indexing conveyors.- Pusher in-feed systems.- Pallet in-feed systems.- Discharging.- Conveyorized first provers.- Moulding.- Sheeting action.- Curling.- Final moulding.- Four-piecing.- Cross-grain moulding.- Other sheeting and moulding systems.- Equipment for small bread and rolls.- Small bun divider moulders.- Integrated multi-lane roll plants.- References.- 5 Proving, baking and cooling.- Psychrometry.- Definitions.- The proving process.- Practical proving.- Prover checklist.- Modern prover design.- Airflow.- Ambient conditions.- Mechanical handling.- Developments in proving.- Higher proof temperatures.- Shorter proof time.- Prover to oven.- The baking process.- Crumb structure.- Yeast activity.- Starch gelatinization.- Enzyme activity.- Baked temperature.- Crust formation.- Gloss formation.- Crust crispness.- Oven break.- Practical baking.- Oven design.- Developments in baking.- Oven to cooler.- The cooling process.- Practical cooling.- Cooler design.- Developments in cooling.- Part-baked processes.- Frozen processes.- Ambient processing.- Processing economics.- Weight loss.- Life cycle costs.- References.- 6 Dough retarding and freezing.- Retarding fermented doughs.- Suitability of breadmaking processes.- Recipe and yeast level.- Retarding temperature.- Storage time.- Proving and baking.- Guidelines for retarding dough production.- Retarding pizza doughs.- Freezing fermented doughs.- Breadmaking process, recipe and yeast.- Processing and freezing doughs.- Defrosting and proving.- Freezing proved doughs.- Factors affecting the formation of white spots on retarded and frozen doughs.- Causes of quality losses with retarded and frozen doughs.- Skinning.- Crust fissures.- Ragged crust breaks.- Small volume.- White spots or small blisters.- Waxy patches.- Black spots.- Large blisters.- Dark crust colour.- Uneven or open cell structure.- Ar
Not another book on breadmaking! A forgiveable reaction given the length of time over which bread has been made and the number of texts which have been written about the subject. To study breadmaking is to realize that, like many other food processes, it is constantly changing as processing methodologies become increasingly more sophisticated, yet at the same time we realize that we are dealing with a food stuff, the forms of which are very traditional. We can, for example, look at ancient illustrations of breads in manuscripts and paintings and recognize prod ucts which we still make today. This contrast of ancient and modern embodied in a single processed foodstuff is part of what makes bread such a unique subject for study. We cannot, for example, say the same for a can of baked beans! Another aspect of the uniqueness of breadmaking lies in the requirement for a thorough understanding of the link between raw materials and processing meth ods in order to make an edible product. This is mainly true because of the special properties of wheat proteins, aspects of which are explored in most of the chapters of this book. Wheat is a product of the natural environment, and while breeding and farming practices can modify aspects of wheat quality, we millers and bakers still have to respond to the strong influences of the environment.
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