Food microbiology is a fascinating and challenging science. It is also very demanding with a constantly changing sea of guidelines, regulations and equip ment. Public concerns over food safety issues can overemphasize certain risks and detract from the normal hygienic practice of food manufacturers. This new edition aims to update anyone concerned with the hygienic production of food on key issues of HACCP, food microbiology and the methods of microbe detection. I have taken a 'crystal ball' approach to certain topics. The use of rapid techniques such as lux gene technology and polymerase chain reaction (DNA probes) are progressing so rapidly in the research laboratory that when this book is in print the techniques may be more readily available. New methods for investigating viral gastroenteritis due to small round structured viruses (SRSV) have been developed past the 'research' stage and may become more standard in the next few years. Undoubtedly this will alter our understanding of the prevalence of viral food poisoning. I have also included issues such as new variant CJD (associated with BSE infected cattle) which at the time of writing has only caused the deaths of 20 people, but due to the uncertain incubation time could be a far more serious problem. In the UK there has been a much publicised outbreak of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 which has resulted in a government inquiry and the recommenda tion of the generic HACCP approach. Hence this approach to HACCP imple mentation has been included.
'1 Fundamental Principles of Microbiology.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Characterisitics of Bacteria.- 1.2.1 Shape and size.- 1.2.2 Reproduction.- 1.2.3 Bacterial structure.- 1.2.4 Gram reaction.- 1.3 Types of Bacteria Important in Foods.- 1.3.1 Gram negative bacteria.- 1.3.2 Gram positive bacteria.- 1.4 Characteristics of Fungi.- 1.4.1 Moulds.- 1.4.2 Yeasts.- 1.5 Characteristics of Viruses and Prions.- 1.6 The Growth Curve of Bacteria.- 1.7 Factors Influencing Bacterial Growth.- 1.7.1 Nutrients.- 1.7.2 Temperature.- 1.7.3 Moisture.- 1.7.4 Oxygen.- 1.7.5 Hydrogen ion concentration (pH).- 1.7.6 Inhibitory substances.- References.- 2 Food Poisoning and Other Food-borne Hazards.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Incidence of Food Poisoning.- 2.2.1 The bacteria responsible.- 2.2.2 Type of food.- 2.3 Bacterial Food Poisoning.- 2.3.1 Salmonellas.- 2.3.2 Enteritis due to Campylobacter spp.- 2.3.3 Staphylococcus aureus.- 2.3.4 Bacillus cereus.- 2.3.5 Vibrio parahaemolyticus.- 2.3.6 Botulism.- 2.3.7 Listeriosis.- 2.3.8 Clostridium perfringens.- 2.3.9 Escherichia coli.- 2.3.10 Miscellaneous bacterial food poisoning and new variant CJD.- 2.4 Mycotoxicoses.- 2.4.1 Aflatoxins.- 2.4.2 Miscellaneous mycotoxins.- 2.5 Virus Food Poisoning.- 2.5.1 Small round structured viruses (SRSV).- 2.5.2 Infective hepatitis.- 2.5.3 Rotaviruses.- 2.5.4 Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and new variant CJD.- 2.5.5 General control measures.- 2.6 Animal Toxins and Parasitic Infections.- 2.6.1 Animals that are naturally toxic to man.- 2.6.2 Secondary toxicity.- 2.6.3 Parasitic infections.- 2.7 Poisonous Plants.- 2.8 Chemical Poisoning.- References.- 3 Food Spoilage.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Spoilage of Fresh Meats.- 3.2.1 Contamination of tissues by microorganisms.- 3.2.2 Control of microbial growth.- 3.2.3 Effect of storage temperature.- 3.2.4 Chemical changes produced by bacteria in chilled meats.- 3.3 Spoilage of Cured Meats.- 3.3.1 Curing agents.- 3.3.2 The curing process.- 3.3.3 The microbiology and spoilage of bacon and ham.- 3.4 Spoilage of Vacuum-Packed Meats.- 3.4.1 Types of packaging materials.- 3.4.2 Influence of packaging materials on the microbiological flora.- 3.4.3 Spoilage of packed fresh meats.- 3.4.4 Spoilage of vacuum-packed bacon.- 3.4.5 Modified atmospheric packaging.- 3.4.6 Sous vide.- 3.5 Spoilage of Poultry.- 3.5.1 Effects of processing on the microbiological flora.- 3.5.2 Spoilage of chickens held at chill temperatures.- 3.6 Spoilage of Fish and Shellfish.- 3.6.1 Bacteriology of the newly caught fish.- 3.6.2 The effect of initial processing and storage in ice on board ship.- 3.6.3 The effect of handling ashore.- 3.6.4 Chemical changes induced by bacteria in fish.- 3.6.5 Salted fish.- 3.6.6 Smoked fish.- 3.6.7 Packaged fish.- 3.6.8 Shellfish.- 3.7 Dairy Products.- 3.7.1 Milk.- 3.7.2 Butter.- 3.7.3 Cheese.- 3.7.4 Yoghurt.- 3.8 Eggs and Egg Products.- 3.8.1 The chicken's egg and its spoilage.- 3.8.2 Egg products.- 3.9 Vegetables and Fruits.- 3.9.1 Spoilage by fungi.- 3.9.2 Spoilage by bacteria.- 3.9.3 Control of microbial spoilage.- 3.10 Cereal Based Products.- 3.11 Beer.- 3.12 Wine.- 3.13 Sauerkraut.- 3.14 Canned Foods.- 3.14.1 Leaker spoilage.- 3.14.2 Spoilage due to inadequate heat treatment.- 3.15 Frozen Foods.- 3.15.1 Influence of sub-zero temperatures on microorganisms.- 3.15.2 Factors affecting viability of microorganisms during freezing.- 3.15.3 Effect of cold storage.- 3.15.4 Freezing injury to cells.- 3.15.5 Thawed foods and their spoilage.- 3.16 Dehydrated Foods.- 3.16.1 Methods of drying.- 3.16.2 Influence of drying and freeze drying on microorganisms.- 3.16.3 Storage stability of dried foods.- 3.16.4 Rehydration.- 3.16.5 Intermediate moisture foods.- 3.17 Irradiated Foods 13.- 3.17.1 Types of radiation.- 3.17.2 Effect of radiation on microorganisms.- 3.17.3 High dose applicatons.- 3.17.4 Low dose applications and the spoilage of foods so treated.
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