1 A measurement scheme for developing institutional products.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Phase I. Consumer marketing.- 1.2.1 Whom to test.- 1.2.2 What to test.- 1.2.3 How to test.- 1.3 Phase II. Individual item sensory testing.- 1.3.1 Trained and consumer panels.- 1.3.2 Choice of rating scales.- 1.4 Phase III. Consumer meal testing - laboratory.- 1.4.1 What is a meal?.- 1.4.2 Acceptance and consumption.- 1.5 Phase IV. Consumer meal testing - field.- 1.5.1 Realism.- 1.5.2 Test population.- 1.5.3 Adhering to test protocol.- 1.5.4 Item and meal acceptance.- 1.6 Phase V. Prototype testing.- 1.7 Phase VI. Extended ration use validation.- 1.8 Phase VII. Quality control testing.- 1.9 How to use the seven-phase testing sequences.- References.- 2 Appropriateness as a measure of the cognitive-contextual aspects of food acceptance.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Description of procedures for appropriateness, item by use technique.- 2.2.1 Selection of stimuli.- 2.2.2 Format of the questionnaire.- 2.2.3 Selection of respondents.- 2.2.4 Collection of non-appropriateness data.- 2.2.5 Data collection.- 2.2.6 Analysis of appropriateness data.- 2.2.7 Use of principal component analysis.- 2.2.8 Analyses with non-appropriateness data.- 2.3 Conclusions.- References.- 3 The repertory grid approach.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.1.1 Food choice.- 3.1.2 Personal construct theory.- 3.2 Methodology.- 3.2.1 Repertory grid method.- 3.2.2 Statistical analysis of repertory grids.- 3.2.3 Generalised Procrustes analysis.- 3.3 Application.- 3.3.1 The different aspects of food choice.- 3.3.2 Investigating the food: general perceptions, sensory characteristics and reasons for choice.- 3.3.3 Investigating consumers.- 3.3.4 Investigating contexts of use.- 3.3.5 Interaction of foods, consumers and context of use.- 3.3.6 Extending repertory grid methodology: laddering, preference mapping and other procedures.- 3.4 Conclusions.- References.- 4 Focus group interviewing.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.1.1 Advantages and limitations of focus groups.- 4.1.2 Myths about focus groups.- 4.2 The process of conducting focus groups.- 4.2.1 Designing a study.- 4.2.2 Developing the questioning route.- 4.2.3 Recruiting participants.- 4.2.4 Moderating.- 4.2.5 Analysis.- 4.2.6 Validity and reliability - Can we really trust this stuff?.- 4.3 Summary.- References.- 5 Product optimization: approaches and applications.- 5.1 Background and applications.- 5.1.1 What is product optimization?.- 5.1.2 Historical background.- 5.2 Steps in a designed experiment and product optimization study.- 5.2.1 Selection of variables and their levels - systematic versus haphazard designs.- 5.2.2 Questionnaire development.- 5.2.3 Test implementation.- 5.2.4 Analysis of the data - a multi-step process.- 5.3 A case history - salsa.- 5.3.1 Experimental design.- 5.3.2 Results.- 5.3.3 Analysis phase 1, R-R analysis.- 5.3.4 Analysis phase 2, S-R (stimulus-response) analysis.- 5.3.5 Three examples of optimization technology.- 5.4 An overview.- References.- 6 Preference mapping in practice.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.1.1 An alternative approach.- 6.2 External preference analysis - Prefmap.- 6.2.1 The method.- 6.2.2 Case study using external analysis.- 6.2.3 Problems with external preference mapping.- 6.3 Internal analysis - MDPREF.- 6.3.1 Method.- 6.3.2 Case study using internal analysis.- 6.4 Advantages and limitations of preference mapping.- 6.5 Aspects of conduct.- References.- 7 An individualised psychological approach to measuring influences on consumer preferences.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Measuring individual consumer preferences.- 7.2.1 Acquisition of food preferences.- 7.2.2 Relating determinants to food preferences: the acceptance triangle.- 7.2.3 Principles of consumer preference measurement.- 7.3 Psychophysical acceptance parameters.- 7.3.1 Ideal point (IP).- 7.3.2 Rejections ratio (RR).- 7.3.3 Tolerance discrimination ratio (TDR).- 7.4 Aggregation of individuals' acceptance parameters.- 7.5 Measuring determinants of acceptance
This book provides comprehensive coverage of the numerous methods used to characterise food preference. It brings together, for the first time, the broad range of methodologies that are brought to bear on food choice and preference. Preference is not measured in a sensory laboratory using a trained panel - it is measured using consumers by means of product tests in laboratories, central locations, in canteens and at home, by questionnaires and in focus groups. Similarly, food preference is not a direct function of sensory preference - it is determined by a wide range of factors and influences, some competing against each other, some reinforcing each other. We have aimed to provide a detailed introduction to the measurement of all these aspects, including institutional product development, context effects, variation in language used by consumers, collection and analysis of qualitative data by focus groups, product optimisation, relating prefer ence to sensory perception, accounting for differences in taste sensitivity between consumers, measuring how attitudes and beliefs determine food choice, measuring how food affects mood and mental performance, and how different expectations affect sensory perception. The emphasis has been to provide practical descriptions of current methods. Three of the ten first-named authors are university academics, the rest are in industry or research institutes. Much of the methodology is quite new, particularly the repertory grid coupled with Generalised Procrustes Analysis, Individualised Difference Testing, Food and Mood Testing, and the Sensory Expectation Models.
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