Editorial introduction.- J.M. DALZELL.- 1 Food from animals: environmental issues and implications.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Disposal of animal excreta.- 1.3 Energetic efficiency.- 1.4 Environmental influences upon perceptions of quality in food from animals.- 1.4.1 Flavour.- 1.4.2 Fatness.- 1.4.3 Freedom from undesired characteristics.- 1.4.4 Animal welfare perceptions.- 1.5 Conclusion.- 2 Organic and non-organic agriculture.- 2.1 Background.- 2.2 What is organic farming?.- 2.3 Organic husbandry techniques.- 2.4 The environmental impact of agriculture.- 2.4.1 Pesticides.- 2.4.2 Nitrates.- 2.4.3 Wildlife.- 2.4.4 Soil erosion.- 2.4.5 Energy and non-renewable resources.- 2.5 Physical and financial performance of organic farms.- 2.5.1 Yields.- 2.5.2 Prices.- 2.5.3 Costs.- 2.5.4 Profitability.- 2.6 Standards for organic food and farming.- 2.6.1 EC regulations.- 2.6.2 Labelling.- 2.6.3 Other schemes.- 2.7 Future trends.- 2.7.1 Towards a sustainable agriculture.- 2.7.2 Environment first : a new concept for agriculture ?.- Further reading.- References.- 3 The environmental implications of genetic engineering in the food industry.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 The regulatory climate.- 3.3 Consumer acceptability.- 3.4 A case study: the genetically engineered tomato.- 3.4.1 The techniques of genetic subtraction.- 3.4.2 Metabolic studies of the recombinant tomato.- 3.4.3 Field trials of the recombinant tomato.- 3.4.4 Ethylene production in recombinant tomatoes.- 3.4.5 The engineering of processing tomatoes.- 3.4.6 Regulatory approval of the recombinant tomato.- 3.4.7 Legal dispute.- 3.5 A case study: chymosin produced by genetic engineering.- 3.5.1 The biosynthesis of mammalian chymosin.- 3.5.2 The choice of host organism.- 3.5.3 Construction of the genetically engineered K. lactis.- 3.5.4 Production of chymosin.- 3.5.5 Safety of production.- 3.5.6 The chemical and functional properties of chymosin produced by the genetically engineered K. Lactis.- 3.5.7 Safety of recombinant chymosin.- 3.5.8 Regulatory position of MAXIREN.- 3.6 A case study: the genetic engineering of a food-grade organism.- 3.6.1 Construction of a yeast strain with altered maltose fermentation.- 3.6.2 Performance of the genetically modified baker's yeast.- 3.6.3 Survival of the genetically modified yeast in the environment.- 3.6.4 Risk of genetic transfer.- 3.6.5 Consumer safety.- 3.6.6 Regulatory position of the genetically modified baker's yeast.- 3.7 Conclusions and future prospects.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 4 Energy conservation and the cost benefits to the food industry.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Energy monitoring and targeting.- 4.2.1 Types of system.- 4.2.2 System implementation.- 4.2.3 Case study.- 4.3 Steam/hot water systems.- 4.3.1 The heating medium.- 4.3.2 Hot water.- 4.3.3 Thermal fluids.- 4.3.4 Steam.- 4.3.5 Raising steam.- 4.3.6 Steam distribution and pressure.- 4.3.7 Pipework.- 4.3.8 Drain points and condensate.- 4.3.9 Feedwater Treatment And Blowdown.- 4.3.10 Improving energy efficiency: what to do first.- 4.4 Refrigeration.- 4.4.1 Refrigeration cycles.- 4.4.2 Auxiliary equipment.- 4.4.3 Coefficient of performance.- 4.4.4 Factors affecting efficiency.- 4.4.5 Calculating annual costs.- 4.4.6 Case study: cooling from too high a temperature.- 4.4.7 Other issues.- 4.5 Combined heat and power.- 4.5.1 Combined heat and power (CHP) plant.- 4.5.2 Suitability for CHP.- 4.5.3 Case study.- 4.6 Further information.- 5 Noise and air pollution in the food industry: sources, control and cost implications.- 1 Noise pollution.- 5.1 Sources.- 5.2 Effects on health.- 5.3 Legislation.- 5.3.1 Noise at work.- 5.3.2 Neighbourhood noise.- 5.4 Methods of measurement.- 5.5 Methods of reduction.- 5.5.1 Ear defenders.- 5.5.2 Reduction of noise at source.- 5.5.3 Noise enclosures.- 5.5.4 Reduction of reverberation.- 5.5.5 Reduction of the time exposure.- 5.5.6 Reduction of noise to neighbours.- 2 Air pollution.- 5.6 Air pollution sources and effects.- 5.6.1 Introduction.- 5.6.2
All areas of industry are facing increasing pressure from governments and consumers to be more environmentally aware. The food industry is no exception, and an increasing number of companies have made the decision to implement an environmental policy. These organisations will benefit from this book, which has been written to provide a broad but detailed introduction to the topic of environmental issues and their cost implica tions to the food industry. Throughout the text the authors have approached the subject from a practical angle, and have borne in mind the environmental, production or site manager who is grappling with the problem of how to implement such a policy. This book begins by considering the raw materials that are used in the food industry, whether derived from animals, fruit and vegetables, or the products of genetic engineering, as may increasingly be the case in the future. Environmental and cost considerations of food processing opera tions are then examined, encompassing energy conservation and the con trol of air, noise and water pollution; all topics that are uppermost in the priorities of the environmental manager. The finished food product also has an impact on its environment, and so the storage, distribution and packaging of foods, post food factory, is discussed in detail. Finally, the principles involved in management accounting for food industry environ mental issues are highlighted. All the authors of this book are respected experts in their chosen field, each of whom could have written a complete book on their subject.
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