T-Cell/Macrophage Activation and HIV Infection.- 1. CD4+ and CD8+ T Lymphocyte Activation in HIV Infection: Implications for Immune Pathogenesis and Therapy.- 2. Markers of Immune Cell Activation and Disease Progression: Cell Activation in HIV Disease.- 3. The Role of the Cell Cycle in HIV-1 Infection.- 4. Molecular Basis of Cell Cycle Dependent HIV-1 Replication: Implications for Control of Virus Burden.- 5. Regulation of Macrophage Activation and HIV Replication.- 6. Investigations on Autologous T-Cells for Adoptive Immunotherapy of AIDS.- 7. Rational Problems Associated with the Development of Cellular Approaches in Controlling HIV Spread.- Apoptosis and Viropathogenesis of HIV Disease.- 8. The Role of Surface CD4 in HIV-Induced Apoptosis.- 9. Mechanism of Apoptosis in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of HIV-Infected Patients.- 10. Programmed Death of T Cells in the Course of HIV Infection.- 11. T Cell Apoptosis as a Consequence of Chronic Activation of the Immune System in HIV Infection.- 12. Apoptosis during HIV Infection: A Cytopathic Effect of HIV or an Important Host-Defense Mechanism against Viruses in General?.- Apoptosis and Immunopathogenesis of HIV Disease.- 13. From Cell Activation to Cell Depletion: The Programmed Cell Death Hypothesis of AIDS Pathogenesis.- 14. Immunosuppression by a Noncytolytic Virus Via T Cell Mediated Immunopathology: Implication for AIDS.- 15. Clonal Expansion of T Cells and HIV Genotypes in Microdissected Splenic White Pulps Indicates Viral Replication in Situ and Infiltration of HIV-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes.- 16. Autoimmunity, Apoptosis Defects, and Retroviruses.- 17. AIDS as Immune System Activation: Key Questions that Remain.- Mediators of T-Cell Activation/Apoptosis and Therapeutic Applications.- 18. Inhibition of T Lymphocyte Activation and Apoptotic Cell Death by Cyclosporin A and Tacrolimus (FK506): Its Relevance to Therapy of HIV Infection.- 19. Cyclophilin and Gag in HIV-1 Replication and Pathogenesis.- 20. Long-Term Follow-up of HIV Positive Asymptomatic Patients Having Received Cyclosporin A.- 21. Prospective Views of HIV Pathology: Clues for Therapeutic Strategies.
In the past decade, the global efforts in the control of HIV disease were basically concentrated on the search for anti-retroviral agents. So far, anti-HIV therapies have been shown to be disappointing because of rapid development of drug-resistant mutant variants. Despite this drawback in the therapeutic fight against HIV infection, antiviral research should be actively pursued. However, failure of antiviral therapy indicates that other avenues of research should be rapidly explored with the same energy. In this setting, striking advances have been recently made in the dissection and understanding of the viro-immunological processes governing the progressive destruction of lymphoid organs associated with AIDS develop ment, and HIV-induced activation and apoptosis have been identified as key phenomena of the immune system destruction. This book assembles the most recent advances on basic and clinical aspects ofT-cell activationiapoptosis in HIV infection and their implications for immunotherapy. These data were presented at an international symposium held on July 11-12, 1994, in Paris. The book is partitioned into 21 chapters covering four comprehensive fields: 1) T-celllmacrophage activation and HIV infection; 2) Apoptosis and viropathogenesis of HI V disease; 3) Apop tosis and immunopathogenesis ofHIV disease; 4) Mediators ofT-cell activationiapoptosis and therapeutic applications. We hope that this book will assist the readers in understanding recent advances in the viro-immunopathogenesis of HI V disease as well as the rationales for potential immune cell-targeted therapeutic interventions.
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