Dedication. Preface; D.S. Newburg. Section I: Introduction. 1. Bioactive components of human milk: evolution, efficiency, and protection; D.S. Newburg. 2. Human milk and the response of intestinal epithelium to infection; K. Bernt, W.A. Walker. 3. MUC1 and MUC-X, epithelial mucins of breast and milk; S. Patton, M.-G. Awardee. 4. Drug transport into milk; P.J. McNamara. Section II: Hormones & Growth Factors in Mammary Development and in Milk. Overview. 5. The transforming growth factors beta in development and functional differentiation of the mouse mammary gland; C.W. Daniel, et al. 6. Is milk a conduit for developmental signals? K.D. Nusser, L.S. Frawley. 7. Regulation of cell apoptosis by insulin-like growth factor 1; D.L. Hadsel, G. Abdel-Fattah. 8. Human milk contains detectable levels of immunoreactive leptin; R.E. Lyle, et al. 9. Induction of expression of branched-chain aminotransferase and alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase in rat tissues during lactation; S. DeSantiago, et al. 10. A low-fat diet but not food restriction improves lactational performance in obese rats; K.M. Rasmussen, et al. 11. Human lactoferrin in the milk of transgenic mice increases intestinal growth in ten-day-old suckling neonates; P. Zhang, et al. 12. Growth rates of a human colon adenocardinoma cell line are regulated by the milk protein alpha-lactalbumin; L.G. Sternhagen, J.C. Allen. Section III: Molk Lipids and the Milk Fat Globule. Overview. 13. Assembly and secretion of the lipid globules of milk; T.W. Keenan. 14. Prolonged breast-feeding (six months or more) and milk fat content at six months are associated with higher developmental scores at one year of age within a breast-fed population; C. Agostoni, et al. 15. Presence of carotenoid, an anticarcinogenic marker, in nipple aspirates postlactation; C. Covington, et al. 16. The anticarcinogenic conjugated fatty acid c9, t11-C18:2, or rumenic acid, in human milk: amounts and effects; R.G. Jensen, C. Lammi-Keefe. 17. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in human hindmilk are constant throughout twelve-month lactation; C. Agostoni, et al. 18. Parenteral infusion of a lactating woman with intralipid: changes in milk and plasma fatty acids; R.G. Jensen, et al. 19. Investigation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in lactating women with stable isotope techniques; H. Demmelmair, et al. 20. Structural and functional aspects of three major glycoproteins of the human milk fat globule membrane; J.A. Peterson, et al. 21. Anti-infectious properties of the human milk fat globule membrane; H. Schroten, et al. Section IV: Immunomodulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Agents in Milk. Overview. 22. Homeostasis of mucosal immune system: human milk and lactation; J. Mestecky. 23. Anti-inflammatory characteristics of human milk: how, where, why; E.S. Buescher. 24. Development of a topical vaginal microbicide: lessons learned from human milk; C.E. Isaacs, et al. 25. Does human lactoferrin in the milk of transgenic mice deliver iron to suckling neonates? L.H. Hanson, et al. 26. Changes in lactoferrin and lysozyme levels in human milk during the
Although breast-feeding has long been associated with lowered infant morbid ity and mortality from infectious disease, until relatively recently little was known regarding the individual components of human milk aside from their nutritive func tions and the presence of secretory antibodies. Over the last 40 years, and especially over the last decade, evidence has been growing that human milk contains a large number of materials that are bioactive and that are not found in artificially formu latedinfantdiets. Disparatelinesofresearcharecurrentlyproducingsurprisinglylong listsofnewlyrecognizedhumanmilkcomponents-antimicrobialsand immunomod ulators, includinganti-inflammatoryagents, antioxidants, cytokines, andhormones with biological activities that relate to pathogenesis, inflammation, development, metabolic regulation, and other functions. The sum of all of these biologically active milk components may account for the strong protection that human milk affords nursing infants. Strictly speaking, most components of human milk could be considered bioac tive, since nutrients are bioactive by definition. A major emphasis of this book, how ever, is on defining what is known about components of human milk that inhibit common pathogens of the infant, those that have hormonal and/or cytokine activity, those that have immunomodulatory and/or anti-inflammatory activity, xenobiotics, and nutrients that are uniquely essential to early development. The topic of bioactive substances in human milk was explored in depth at the th 8 International Conference of the International Society for Research on Human Milk and Lactation (ISRHML) held at Plymouth, Massachusetts, October 25-29, 1997. This book contains the proceedings of that conference.
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