Fjords are deep, glacia11y carved estuaries that are pecu1iar to certain coast1ines, and have severa1 characteristics that dist inguish them from sha110wer embayments. At higher latitudes they indent the western coast1ines of Scandinavia, North and South America, and New Zea1and. They are a1so a common feature of much of the arctic coast1ine. The papers contained in this vo1ume were presented at a workshop funded by the NATO Advanced Studies Institute in Victoria, British Co1umbia. It may seem curious to the reader that this specia1 c1ass of estuaries shou1d have attracted an international gathering of oceanographers from severa1 different discip1ines. The reas on for this interest stems from both practica1 and scientific considerations. On the one hand, fjords are a feature common to the coast1ines of severa1 countries that depend heavi1y on the oceans for communication, fisheries and other resources. The impact of man's activities on these coasts has created a demand for new know1edge of the physica1, bio10gica1 and chemica1 aspects of fjords. Sometimes man's inf1uence on the ocean is intentiona1 as, for examp1e, in the artificia1 contro1 of ice cover; often it is the more insidious bui1d-up of toxic wastes that is of concern. These prob1ems are particu1ar1y acute where the conf1icting demands of fisheries, industria1 deve10pment and re creation meet in a sing1e fjord; and indeed, this is a common occurence a10ng severa1 of the fjords in Scandinavia and Canada.
'Introductory Papers.- Pacific Fjords - A Review of their Water Characteristics.- Why Biologists are Interested in Fjords.- Physical Processes.- The Fluid Mechanical Problem of Fjord Circulations.- Topographic Effects in Stratified Fluids.- Barotropic and Baroclinic Response of a Semi-Enclosed Basin to Barotropic Forcing from the Sea.- A Linear Model of Internal Tides in Sill Fjords.- Tidaily-Forced Stratified Flow over Sills.- Geostrophic Fronts.- Modelling of Mixing Processes in the Surface Layers of the Ocean.- Experimental Simulation of the 'Retreat' of the Seasonal Thermocline by Surface Heating.- Turbulent Entrainment at a Buoyancy Interface due to Convective Turbulence.- Energetics of Mixing Processes in Fjords.- Mixing and Exchange Processes in a Small Greenland Sill-Fjord.- Mixing Experiments in Fjords.- Tracer Measurement of Mixing in the Deep Water of a Small, Stratified Sill-Fjord.- Estimation of Vertical Mixing Rates in Fjords Using Naturally Occurring Radon-222 and Salinity as Tracers.- Recent Observations in Knight Inlet.- Mixing Induced by Internal Hydraulic Disturbances in the Vicinity of Sills.- Generation of Lee Waves over the Sill in Knight Inlet.- The Hydrography of Knight Inlet, B.C., in the Light of Long's Model of Fjord Circulation.- Turbulence Measurements through a Train of Breaking Internal Waves in Knight Inlet, B.C..- Finite Element Computation of the Barotropic Tides in Knight Inlet, British Columbia.- The Distribution of Zooplankton Communities in a Glacial Run-Off Fjord and Exchanges with the Open Sea.- Circulation Studies.- An Unusual Polynya in an Arctic Fjord.- Seasonal Observations of Low Frequency Atmospheric Forcing in th Strait of Juan de Fuca.- Vertical Structure of Fluctuating Currents in the Strait of Juan de Fuca.- Physical Oceanography of the New Zealand Fjords.- A Way to Measure the Residual Flow in the Limfjord - Denmark.- Controlling Impact of Changes in Fjord Hydrology.- Water Movements Traced by Metals Dissolved from Mine Tailings Deposited in a Fjord in North-West Greenland.- Exchange Processes above Sill Level between Fjords and Coastal Water.- Particulate Matter Exchange Processes between the Saint Lawrence Estuary and the Saguenay Fjord.- Zooplankton Variability in Skjomen, Northern Norway and Exchanges with the Outer Fjord..- Mean Field Distributions of a Dissolved Substance in the Vicinity of Branches in a Fjord System.- Pelagic Ecology.- Pelagic Productivity and Food Chains in Fjord Systems.- How the Zooplankton Community may vary within a Single Fjord System.- A Preliminary Examination of Zooplankton Species Groupings and Associated Oceanographically Defined Regions along the British Columbia Mainland Coast.- Gadoid Populations of Western Scottish Sea-Lochs and their Exchanges with West Coast Stocks.- Phytoplankton Biology of Saanich Inlet, B.C..- Echo-Sounding and Ecology.- Variability in Sea-Loch Phytoplankton.- Amino Acid Fluxes in Marine Plankton Communities Contained in CEPEX Bags.- Biochemical Components as Indicators of Seasonal Condition of Deep-Water Zooplankton.- Deep-Water Exchange and its Effects.- Deep-Water Renewal in Fjords.- The Tidal Jet in Rupert-Holberg Inlet.- Effect of Oxygen Deficiency on Benthic Macrofauna in Fjords.- Benthic Biology of a Dissolved Oxygen Deficiency Event in Howe Sound, B.C..- Renewal and Entrainroent in Loch Eil: A Periodically Ventilated Scottish Fjord.- Deep-Water Renewals in the Frierfjord - An Intermittently Anoxic Basin.- A Radiotracer Study of Water Renewal and Sedimentation in a Scottish Fjord.- Description of Water Renewal Processes in the Gros Mecatina Estuary.- Characteristics of Flow over a Sill during Deep-Water Renewal.- Benthic Ecology.- The Meiobenthos of Fjords: A Review and Prospectus.- The Macrobenthos of Fjords.- The Effect of Sedimentation on Rocky Bottom Organisms in Balsfjord, Northern Norway.- Suprabenthic Gamm
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