1 Energetic basis.- General relations.- Equations of state and chemical potential of pure gases, liquids, and solids.- Phases of variable composition.- Reactions and equations of equilibrium.- The Gibbs phase rule.- Effect of gravitational field.- Kinetics.- 2 Equilibrium of mineral systems.- One-component transitions.- Univariant transformations of solids.- Univariant reactions involving gases.- The system CaO-MgO-CO2.- Exchange equilibria.- The distribution of minor elements.- Coupled equilibria involving solid solutions and gases.- Intrinsic and extrinsic stability.- Ionic processes.- Crystal-melt equilibria.- 3 Kinetics of mineral systems.- General.- Quasiequilibrium processes in a temperature gradient.- Quasiequilibrium processes under isothermal conditions.- Crystal kinetics.- Kinetics of dissociation.- Kinetics of complex heterogeneous reactions.- Kinetics of rock deformation.- 4 Classifications of rocks.- Chemical classification.- Mineral facies classification.- 5 Chemical and petrogenetic processes in space.- Solids in space.- The problem of the origin of the solar system.- Condensation from a gas of solar composition.- The effect of nonequilibrium ionization.- System O-Si-Mg-Fe-Ni-P.- 6 Meteorites.- General characteristics.- The dating of events in meteorite history.- Classification schemes.- Mineralogy.- Petrography of the chondrites.- Bulk chemical characteristics.- Prior's rules.- Oxidation and hydration states of meteorites.- Carbon reactions in meteorites.- Reactions involving sulfur and phosphorus compounds in meteorites.- Element distributions in meteorites.- Mechanisms of liquidus crystallization for the chondrites.- Origin of the metallic components of chondrites.- Pressure of formation of meteorites.- Origin of meteorites: a critique of theories and hypotheses.- 7 The terrestrial planets.- Gross physical and chemical characteristics.- Origin and evolution.- Chemistry and petrology of Venus.- The atmosphere and surface of Mercury.- Mars.- The Moon.- Comparative planetology.- 8 Metamorphism and metamorphic mechanisms.- Origin of microstructures and textures.- Kinetic aspects of crystallization.- Rates of metamorphic reactions.- Mineral orientation.- Origin of macrostructures.- Origin of compositional variations.- Summary.- 9 Metamorphic minerals.- Experimental appraisal of the stability of minerals.- Theoretical analysis of stabilities of crystalline solutions.- 10 Metamorphic mineral facies.- Diagenesis and metamorphism; the zeolite and lawsonite facies.- Greenschist facies.- Amphibolite facies.- Granulite facies.- 11 Experimental and theoretical study of metamorphic systems.- Geometric analysis of phase equilibria.- Method of interpreting metamorphic assemblages.- The system K2O-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O.- Assemblages with staurolite.- The system SiO2-K2O-Al2O3-FeO-MgO-H2O in transition from amphibolite to granulite facies.- Anthophyllite-gedrite pelitic rocks.- The system CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O.- Assemblages with cordierite in the granulite facies.- The charnockite assemblage.- Magnesian, calcic, and carbonate rocks.- Metamorphism of ultramafic rocks.- The iron formations.- Rocks of high pressure and controversial origin.- 12 Properties, origin, and environment of magmas.- Structures of silicate melts.- Solubilities of volatile components.- Densities of magmas.- Viscosities of magmas.- Liquid Immiscibility.- Origin of magmas.- General features of the occurence of magmatic rocks.- 13 Differentiation and crystallization of magmas.- The existence of rock series and their meaning.- Homogeneous differentiation.- Heterogeneous differentiation by separation of a fluid phase.- Separation of a fluid phase in a crystallizing magma.- Crystallization and heterogeneous differentiation in magmas.- Subtraction and variation diagrams.- 14 Igneous plutons: Their physical chemistry and mode of occurrence.- The compositional fields of igneous rocks.- General factors in the differentiation of basaltic magmas.- Differentiated gabbroi
Chemical petrology is essentially the physical chemistry of rocks and associated fluids, although it also borrows heavily from such other sciences as mineralogy. In terms of fundamentals it is firmly grounded in chemical thermodynamics and kinetics. In its treatment of terrestrial environments it grades imperceptably into sedimentology, geochemistry, and geophysics and in extraterrestrial environments into cosmochemistry. It is one of the most important branches of planetology and meteoritics. The unity of approach of thermodynamics and kinetics to processes in these diverse environments is stressed in this book by numerous examples which have been chosen to illuminate different aspects of the subject. Thus we have discussed in some depth such problems as the genesis of layered basic complexes, calc-alkaline batholiths, chondri tic meteorites, and the surface-atmosphere interaction of the planet Venus because these are important and because they are particularly good illustrations of the chemical petrology approach. Considerable attention also has been devoted to volcanic processes. In our treatment of metamor phism in particular, an attempt has been made to correlate and integrate the vast number of recent experimental, theoretical, and field studies. However, we have not attempted a comprehensive survey of all known rock types or occurrences, nor did we review all the diverse opinions and conclusions on the origins of controversial rocks. Instead we have chosen to stress interpretations we regard as following most directly from the evidence.
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