1. Sex in Plants and Factors in Sexual Differentiation.- A. The Evolution of Sex.- B. The Genetic Theory of Sex Determination.- C. Sexual Dimorphism.- D. Foundations for a Biochemical Diagnosis of Sex.- E. The Concept of Plant Sex Hormones.- 2. Influence of Environmental Factors and Nutrition on Sex Determination in Plants (A Review).- A. Mineral Nutrition and Water Supply.- B. Atmospheric Gas Composition.- C. Temperature.- D. Day Length and Quality of Light.- E. Photoperiodic Induction and Darkness.- F. Surgical Manipulations, Grafts, and Other Factors.- 3. Hormonal Regulation of Sex Expression and Age-Related Changes.- A. Influence of Phytohormones and Growth Inhibitors on Sex Expression in Whole Plants.- B. Phytohormone Treatment of Seeds Before Sowing.- C. Sex Expression and the Age of the Plant.- D. Effects of Phytohormones at Early Developmental Stages.- 4. The Roles of Individual Organs and of the Phytohormones They Synthesize in Controlling Sex Expression in Plants.- A. An Integral Model of Sex Expression in Plants.- B. The Roles of Roots, Leaves, and Their Phytohormones in Sexual Differentiation in Dioecious Plants.- C. The Roles of Individual Organs and Their Phytohormones in Sex Expression in Monoecious Plants Carrying Unisexual Flowers.- D. Individual and Combined Effects of Hormones and Growth Inhibitors on Sex Expression in Hemp.- 5. Differential Content of Phytohormone Activity in Male and Female Plants.- A. Gibberellins.- B. Cytokinins.- C. Auxins and Growth Inhibitors.- D. Results.- 6. Hormonal and Genetic Factors in Plant Sex Expression.- A. Sex Expression in Isolated Hemp Embryos Grown in Culture.- B. Generalized Concept of Sex Expression in Dioecious and Monoecious Plants.- C. Sex Expression in Hemp and the Combined Effects of Phytohormones and Inhibitors of Nucleic Acid and Protein Metabolism.- D. Immunochemical Analysis of Stem Apices of Male and Female Hemp Plants.- 7. Plant Sex Expression and the Interactions Between Ecologic Factors, Phytohormones, and the Genetic Apparatus.- 8. Practical Uses of Phytohormones in Directing Plant Sex Expression and in Increasing Plant Productivity.- 9. Conclusion.- References.
Here is the first book to treat the control of sexuality in plants. The authors provide a thorough review of the literature and discuss many new findings from their laboratory. They include a review of the evolution and genetics of sexuality, including new data on the effect of primary environmental factors on sex expression and the influence of phytohormones on the expression of sexuality as a function of age. The work discussed here has significant implications for plant breeding. Agronomists, horticulturists, and plant physiologists will find practical information on procedures to use in the field or the green house, as well as a thorough introduction to the principles of flowering and fruiting.
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