1. Three Hundred Years of Illustrations in American Textbooks.- Illustrations in Pre-Eighteenth-Century Materials, Precursors to American Textbooks.- Illustrations in Eighteenth-Century American Textbooks.- Early-Nineteenth-Century Textbooks.- Later-Nineteenth-Century Textbooks.- The Use of Color.- The Move Toward Ethnicity and Equality.- Conclusions.- Acknowledgments.- References and Bibliography.- 2. The Analysis of Illustration in Theory and Practice.- Analytical Model.- Visual Factors.- Levels of Communication.- Elements.- Relevant Findings.- Syntactic Unity (the Bounds of a Single Image).- Semantic Unity (Recognition of an Image).- Pragmatic Unity (the Role of Experience and Context in Recognition).- Syntactic Location (Basic Pictorial Depth Perception).- Semantic Location (the Contribution of Image Identification to Perception of Pictorial Depth).- Pragmatic Location (Developmental and Experiential Factors in Pictorial Depth Perception).- Syntactic Emphasis (the Attraction and Direction of Attention Independently of Meaning).- Semantic Emphasis (Descriptive Images Having Widespread Attraction and Direction Value).- Pragmatic Emphasis (the Influence of Extrapictorial Factors on Scanning Behavior).- Syntactic Text Parallels (Spatial and Temporal Relationsips Between Text and Illustration).- Semantic Text Parallels (the Naming of an Image).- Pragmatic Text Parallels (the Conceptual Relationships Between Text and Illustration).- Analysis in Action.- Summary.- References.- 3. A Naturalistic Inquiry into Illustration in Instructional Textbooks.- Publishing Illustrations.- The Decision-Making Process.- Why More or Less?.- Updated Illustrations.- The Role of Research.- Why Illustrate?.- Teachers and Illustrations.- The Illustrations Themselves.- Quantity of Illustration.- Type of Illustration.- Complexity of Illustration.- Location of Illustration.- Overview and Directions.- References.- Appendices.- 4. Visual Displays in Basal Readers and Social Studies Textbooks.- Our Domain of Study.- The Big Issues.- Research on Effective Written/Visual Communications.- Method.- Sample.- Type of Visual Display.- Location.- Units of Analysis.- Functions.- Analyses of the Source of Reference.- Results and Discussion.- Type and Location of Visual Displays.- Physical Relations between Text and Iconographic Forms.- The Function of Visual Displays.- Analyses of Reference Source.- General Discussion.- References.- 5. Designing Pictorial/Verbal Instruction: Some Speculative Extensions from Research to Practice.- Case Study 1.- Case Study 2.- Case Study 3.- Case Study 4.- Case Study 5.- Other Illustration Design Problems and Principles.- Relation of Words and Pictures.- Functions of Pictures.- Closing Comparative Examples.- Closing Remarks.- References.- 6. Computer Graphics in Learning and Instruction.- Review of Research.- Graphics in CAI.- Student Applications.- Types of Computer Graphics.- Vector Graphics.- Raster Graphics.- Mixed Systems.- Graphics Workstations.- Computer and Memory.- Disk Storage.- Input Devices.- Display Systems.- Output Devices.- Graphics Software Categories and Capabilities.- Text and Words.- Graphs and Charts.- Drawing Packages.- Painting Packages.- Libraries of Electronic "Clip Art".- Animation and Special Effects.- A Framework for Student Applications.- Prior Research on Graphics in Instruction.- Three types of Graphics.- The Computer Advantage.- Student Applications in Science Learning.- Microcomputer Workstations.- Science Graphics.- Project Implementation.- Informal Evaluation.- Directions for Future Research.- References.
From the earliest stages of elementary school to the advanced college level, vari ous types of illustrations are included in educational materials in order to pro mote learning. These illustrative adjuncts are often profuse and, in many cases, they may be the most striking feature that distinguishes one set of learning materials from another. In addition, the perceived effectiveness of the illustra tions clearly plays an important role in the marketing of many educational materials. Despite this pervasiveness and salience in education, there has never been a systematic effort to bring together the results of research on illustrations in order to provide some level of guidance to the developers of commercial learning materials. There is, however, a considerable research literature that is directly relevant to this aspect of education. The purpose of the present two volume set is to summarize and interpret the existing research literature that deals with the various educational functions of illustrations. In undertaking to produce an omnibus reference work on psychological and instructional issues surrounding illustrated learning material, our paramount aim has been to stimulate closer collaboration between researchers, producers, and users of educational text. The problems associated with moving the findings of educational research into the realm of everyday practice have been perennial ones. While many researchers and practitioners are interested in fundamentally similar questions, they typically speak dissimilar languages, read different jour nals, and carry out their work under disparate ideologies.
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