1. Research on Pictures: A Guide to the Literature.- Picture Perception.- Theoretical Approaches to Picture Perception.- Attention and Scanning.- Interpreting Figures and Pictorial Cues.- Perceiving Global Meaning.- Memory for Pictures.- Memory Models.- Recognition Memory.- Recall.- Other Types of Memory Research.- Learning and Cognition.- The Acquisition of Knowledge.- Problem Solving and Visual Thinking.- The Acquisition of Cognitive Skills.- Media Research.- Affective Responses to Pictures.- Arousal and Emotional Impact.- Preferences.- Attitudes.- Aesthetic Responses.- Final Comment.- References and Selected Bibliography.- 2. On Empirically Validating Functions of Pictures in Prose.- What We Already Know: A Retrospective Sketch.- On Pictures in Prose.- On Functions of Pictures in Prose.- On Empirically Validating Functions of Pictures in Prose.- Preliminary Remarks and Caveats About the Meta-Analysis.- A Meta-Analysis of Picture Functions.- An Analysis of the Meta-Analysis: Prescriptions and Proscriptions.- Ten Commandments of Picture Facilitation.- And a Postscription.- References.- Appendix: Studies Included in the Meta-Analysis.- 3. Effects of Illustrations on Children's Listening Comprehension and Oral Prose Memory.- Motivation for Studying Picture Effects.- Theoretical Concern.- Pragmatic Concerns.- Methodological Issues in Studying Picture Effects.- Recent Studies of Illustration Effects on Children's Prose Learning.- Effects Produced by Illustrations that Completely Match Prose.- Effects Produced by Illustrations that Do Not Completely Match Prose.- Discussion: Where to Go from Here?.- References.- 4. The Role of Illustrations in Processing and Remembering Illustrated Text.- 1: Roles and Effects of Illustrations.- Affective-Motivational and Cognitive Effects During Reading.- Affective-Motivational and Cognitive Effects After Reading.- Causes of Cognitive Effects.- 2: Factors Influencing Text-Illustration Effects.- Learner Characteristics.- Picture, Picture/Text, and Text Variables.- 3: Present Shortcomings and Future Avenues of Research.- References.- 5. Charts, Graphs, and Diagrams in Educational Materials.- Definitions.- Advantages of Graphic Forms.- Visual Argument.- Physiological Mechanisms.- Cognitive Mechanisms.- Summary.- The Meaningful Use of Space.- Elements and Relationships.- Charts.- Graphs.- Diagrams.- Summary.- Research on Instructional Effectiveness.- Characteristics of the Research.- Realism: The Descriptive Function.- Charts: The Organization of Information.- Spatial Visualization in Mathematics.- Diagrams and Science Instruction.- Graphics and Text Comprehension.- Summary.- Conclusions.- References.- Author Index.
From the earliest stages of elementary school to the advanced college level, vari ous types of illustrations are included in educational materials in order to pro mote learning. These illustrative adjuncts are often profuse and, in many cases, they may be the most striking feature that distinguishes one set of learning materials from another. In addition, the perceived effectiveness of the illustra tions clearly plays an important role in the marketing of many educational materials. Despite this pervasiveness and salience in education, there has never been a systematic effort to bring together the results of research on illustrations in order to provide some level of guidance to the developers of commercial learning materials. There is, however, a considerable research literature that is directly relevant to this aspect of education. The purpose of the present two volume set is to summarize and interpret the existing research literature that deals with the various educational functions of illustrations. In undertaking to produce an omnibus reference work on psychological and instructional issues surrounding illustrated learning material, our paramount aim has been to stimulate closer collaboration between researchers, producers, and users of educational text. The problems associated with moving the findings of educational research into the realm of everyday practice have been perennial ones. While many researchers and practitioners are interested in fundamentally similar questions, they typically speak dissimilar languages, read different jour nals, and carry out their work under disparate ideologies.
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