In the first edition of this book, we observed that it had been created to fill a need for a usable "self-contained volume on hydrodynamics" (and hydrogeology) that was written specifically for the petroleum industry, but could also serve the earth science community in general. When the first edition was published (1982), M. K. Hubbert, the father of petroleum hydrodynamics, was approaching the final stages of his very productive career. For this reason, the book served as a vehicle to amplify his concepts and spread and stimulate applications of some of his theories and methods throughout the exploration sectors of the petroleum industry. This was accomplished by blending discussions of Hubbert's concepts with some of the procedures used by industry specialists to answer practical oil and gas questions. The simple aim of the book was to bring this material to the fingertips of working geologists and geophysicists, who were "evaluating the hydrocarbon possibilities in larger exploration regions or assessing the potential of small, local subsurface oil and gas prospects. " It was also hoped that by treating areas of conceptual overlap between petroleum geology and ground water hydrology, workers in both disciplines would be brought into closer contact, resulting in mutual benefits gained through healthy scientific and technical interaction. This remains our objective in the second edition, although it has become apparent that additional material is needed to satisfactorily achieve it. The size of this volume reflects the new subject matter.
1 Fluids, Pressures, and Gradients.- The Nature of Fluids.- Pressures and Fluids.- Conversion of Units.- Pascal's Principle.- Pressure Relationships in Fluid Networks.- Planes and Gradients.- 2 Formation Pressure Measurements and Data.- Sources of Pressure Data.- DST Pressure Charts and Pressure Extrapolation.- Accuracy of Drill Stem Test Measurements.- Formation Pressure Information from Well Records.- Computer Data Bases.- Repeat Formation Testing (RFT).- The Selective Formation Tester.- RFT Data.- Analysis and Interpretation of RFT Log Data.- 3 Fluid Environments.- The Hydrostatic Environment.- Internal Forces-Static Environment.- The Hydrodynamic Environment.- Internal Forces-Hydrodynamic Environment.- Hydraulic Segregation of Hydrocarbons.- Hydrocarbon Accumulations as a Function of Hydrodynamic Intensity.- Effects of Flow Magnitude and Direction on Locations of Hydrocarbon Pools.- Characteristics of Hydrostatic Environments.- Characteristics of Hydrodynamic Environments.- 4 Potential Energy Variation in Fluids.- Potential and Kinetic Energy.- Potential Energy in a Fluid.- Force Fields, Flow Lines, and Gradients.- Force Models of Hydrocarbon Traps.- Pressure, Potential, and Hydraulic Head.- 5 Rock, Pore Space, and Fluid Systems.- Rocks and Water.- Compaction, Porosity, and Pore Pressure.- Hydrodynamic Rock-Water Systems.- Water Expulsion and Escape.- 6 Nonnormal Formation Pressures.- Abnormal Pore Pressures.- Hydraulic Head and Potential Energy.- Causes of Abnormal Formation Pressure.- Osmosis, Hydrodynamics, and Abnormal Pressure.- Geopressures.- 7 Pressure Variation with Depth.- Pressure-Depth Gradient Diagrams.- Geologic Interpretation of P-D Plots.- Regional Systems: Separate Hydrocarbon Reservoirs on a Common Aquifer.- Structural Trap Reserves Estimation Problem.- Subsurface Correlations Based on Pressure Data.- Interpretation of Pressure Differences on P-D Graphs.- P-D Gradient Plots and Potentiometrie Surfaces.- Pressure Deflection Maps.- Construction of Pressure System Maps.- 8 Potentiometric Maps and Subsurface Water Flow.- The Potentiometric Surface.- Inference of Subsurface Flow Patterns.- Examples of Potentiometric Maps.- Regional Potentiometric Maps and Basin Models.- Potentiometric Maps of Some Basins.- Local Potentiometric Anomalies and Hydrocarbon Accumulations.- Using a Constant Hydrostatic Gradient Value.- 9 Tilted and Displaced Oil and Gas Pools.- Nonhorizontal Hydrocarbon-Water Contacts.- Tilted Oil-Water Contacts Attributable to Factors Other Than Hydrodynamic.- Economic Significance of Tilted Oil-Water Contacts.- Characteristics of Hydrodynamic Environments.- U, V, Z Construction Procedure.- Mapping Oil and Gas Potential Energy Levels from Water Pressures.- 10 Entrapment Potential Cross Sections.- Hydrostatic Structural Trap.- Hydrodynamic Structural Trap.- Stratigraphic-Hydrodynamic Trap Model.- Regional-Scale Entrapment Potential Cross Sections.- U, V, Z Oil Prediction Problem.- 11 Entrapment Potential Maps.- Hydrocarbon Entrapment.- Hydrodynamic-Structural Trap and Entrapment Potential Mapping.- Displacement of Hydrocarbon Pools.- Hydrodynamic-Stratigraphic Entrapment Potential.- An Application of U, V, Z Mapping.- Regional and Local Mapping of Hydrodynamic Traps: Problem 1.- Local Mapping of Hydrodynamic Traps: Problem 2.- Regional and Local Mapping of Hydrodynamic Traps: Problem 3.- 12 Tilted Oil and Gas Pools: Some Published Examples.- References.- List of Symbols and Abbreviations.- Appendices.- A Answers to Problems.- B Picking Hydrocarbon-Water Interfaces from Well Logs.- C Relationship Between Pressure and Hydraulic Head.
This second edition of Applied Hydrodynamics in Petroleum Exploration deals with the properties of fluids and their practical applications in petroleum and gas exploration. The book is a complete, self-contained discussion of hydrodynamics for geologists and geophysicists actively searching for accumulations of oil and gas.