I. Basic Physiological and Ecological Considerations.- 1. Defensive Strategies of Woody Plants Against Different Insect-Feeding Guilds in Relation to Plant Ecological Strategies and Intimacy of Association with Insects.- 2. Towards a Unified Theory of Plant Defense.- 3. Defensive Responses of Trees in Relation to Their Carbon/Nutrient Balance.- 4. Growth and Differentiation-Balance Relationships in Pines Affect Their Resistance to Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).- 5. Seasonal Variations in Energy Sources and Biosynthesis of Terpenes in Maritime Pine.- 6. Terpene Biosynthesis Under Pathological Conditions.- 7. Resistance of Plants at the Population Level to Attack by Phytophagous Insects.- II. Defenses Against Free-Feeding Insects.- 8. Induced Defenses in Ponderosa Pine Against Defoliating Insects.- 9. Changes in Levels of Foliar Minerals and Phenolics in Trembling Aspen, Populus tremuloides, in Response to Artificial Defoliation.- 10. The Role of Resin Acids in the Relationship Between Scots Pine and the Sawfly, Diprion pini (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae). I.-Resin Acids in the Needles.- 11. The Role of Resin Acids in the Relationship Between Scots Pine and the Sawfly, Diprion pini (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae). II.-Correlations with the Biology of Diprion pini.- 12. Variations in Nutrient Levels as a Defense: Identifying Key Nutritional Traits of Host Plants of the Western Spruce Budworm.- 13. Phenological Resistance of Oaks to the Green Oak Leafroller, Tortrix viridana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).- 14. Wound Response of Living Bark of Scots Pine Seedlings and Its Influence on Feeding by the Weevil, Hylobius abietis.- III. Defenses Against Attached, Imbedded Insects.- 15. Interactions Between the Leaf Miner, Phyllocnistis suffusella, and Poplars.- 16. A Resistance Response of Picea excelsa to the Aphid, Adelges abietis (Homoptera: Aphidoidea).- 17. Variations in Susceptibility of Pinus pinaster to Matsucoccus feytaudi (Homoptera: Margarodidae).- 18. Beech Resistance to the Beech Scale: A Variety of Defenses.- 19. Resistance Mechanisms of Loblolly and Shortleaf Pines to Southern Pine Beetle Attack.- 20. Wound-Induced Oleoresins of Abies concolor: Is It Part of Host Resistance to the Fir Engraver, Scolytus ventralis?.- 21. Elicitation of Defensive Reactions in Conifers.- 22. Do Fungi Influence the Establishment of Bark Beetles in Scots Pine?.- 23. The Toxicity of Norway Spruce Monoterpenes to Two Bark Beetle Species and Their Associates.- 24. Traumatized Hosts: Their Influence on the Population Dynamics of the Southern Pine Bark Beetle Guild.- 25. The Role of Spruce Monoterpene Derivatives as Oviposition Stimuli for Rhizophagus grandis, a Predator of the Bark Beetle, Dendroctonus micans.- 26. Host Orientation Behavior of Dendroctonus ponderosae: Integration of Token Stimuli Host and Defenses.- 27. Investigating the Hypothesis of Primary Attraction in Conifer-Specific Scolytidae Using a Chemometrical Approach.
In 1984, a new research working party on mechanismsofwoody plant resistance against insects and pathogens(lUFROS2. 05-06) was formed in the International Union ofForestryResearchOrganizations. Thepurposeofthisworkingparty istostimulate and facilitate research progress in this areathroughenhancedcommunication among themany researchscientistsscatteredamongthevariouscountriesoftheworld. This volume istheresultofthe first internationalsymposiumofthisworkingparty, which took place in Orleans. France on August 26-29, 1986. Thanks are due to Institute Nationalde laRechercheAgronomique,StationdeZoologie, Forestiere, fortheir in strumental part in organizingthis symposium, and to the University and the Cityof Orleansforgenerousfinancial support. The intentofthis proceedings is to (a) bring together adiverse array ofresearch resultsonthemechanismsofwoodyplantresistanceagainstdifferentkindsofinsects. and(b) to search for threadsofcommonality among these different plant/insect as sociationstofurtherourfundamental understandingofhowplantsdefendthemselves againstphytophagousorganisms. Theresearchpapersareorganizedintothreemaingroups. Thefirstgroupexamines plant defenses from various basic physiological and ecological considerations. The remaining papers, which are mainly case studiesofplant resistance against insects. arecategorizedon the basisofinsect intimacy with host tissues: (a) highly mobile. free feeders suchas moth larvae andsawflies, and (b)poorlymobile, "attached" or imbeddedfeederssuchasaphids,scales,miners, andbarkbeetles. Eachofthesesections isfurtherorganizedonthebasisofkindoftissueattackedbytheinsects,eitherleaves orstern/shootcortexand vasculartissues. Contents Preface v Contributors IX I. Basic Physiological and Ecological Considerations I. DefensiveStrategiesofWoody PlantsAgainst Different Insect-Feeding Guilds in Relation to Plant Ecological Strategiesand IntimacyofAssociation with Insects W. J. Mattson. R. K. Lawrence, R. A. Haack, D. A. Herm
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