1. Introduction.- 2. The Role of Facial Appearance in Liking, Dating, and Marriage.- The Effects of Facial Appearance on Liking.- The Effects of Facial Appearance on Meeting and Dating.- The Role of Facial Appearance in Marriage.- Conclusion.- 3. The Effects of Facial Appearance in Persuasion, Politics, Employment, and Advertising.- Facial Appearance and Persuasion.- The Role of Facial Appearance in Politics.- The Role of Facial Appearance in Employment.- Facial Appearance and Advertising.- General Conclusion.- 4. Facial Appearance and the Criminal Justice System.- The Extent to Which People Expect a Relationship Between Facial Appearance and Criminality.- The Effects of Facial Appearance on Recognizability.- Is There, in Fact, a Relationship Between Facial Appearance and Criminality?.- Facial Appearance and Attributions of Responsibility.- The Effects of Facial Appearance on "Jurors".- Overall Conclusion.- 5. The Effects of Facial Appearance in the Educational System.- The Effects of Facial Appearance on Teachers' Expectations.- The Effects of Facial Appearance on Academic Work.- Is There Really a Relationship Between Facial Appearance and Academic Performance?.- The Effects of Teachers' Facial Appearance.- Conclusion.- 6. The Effects of Children's Facial Appearance on Adults and the Effects of Facial Appearance on Children.- Children's Facial Appearance and Their Disciplining.- Adults' Reactions to Infants' Facial Appearance.- At What Age Can Children Discriminate Facial Attractiveness?.- At What Age Do Children Demonstrate Stereotyping Based on Facial Appearance?.- Overall Conclusion.- 7. The Social Psychology of Facial Disfigurement.- The Birth and Development of Facially Disadvantaged Children.- A Historical Perspective on Disfigurement and Society.- Negative Stereotyping and Negative Attitudes Toward Disfigured Persons-Do They Exist?.- The Relationship Between Societal Values and the Demand for Cosmetic Surgery.- Social Interaction Involving Disfigured Persons.- What Are the Consequences of the Negative Reactions of Others?.- Studies of Helping Behavior Relevant to Facially Disfigured Persons.- The Behavior of Disfigured Persons Themselves.- Ways of Helping Facially Disfigured Persons.- Issues to Be Considered in Future Research.- Summary.- 8. How Can Psychologists Help Those Disadvantaged by Their Facial Appearance?.- Attitudes Toward Facially Disfigured Persons.- The Behavior and Attitudes of Facially Disadvantaged Persons.- Techniques of Attitude Change.- The Media-Enemies or Allies?.- How the Media Can Help.- The Provision of Health Services for Facially Disadvantaged Persons.- Ways of Offering Help Directly to Facially Disadvantaged People..- Conclusion.- 9. Some Final Remarks.- Other Studies Concerning the Social Psychological Aspects of Beauty.- What Is Facial Attractiveness?.- Individual Differences Between Perceivers.- Context Effects in Reactions to Faces.- Theoretical Explanations.- Further Points for Future Research.- References.- Author Index.
Several years ago Coleman (1981) reported that in 1979 one of the many in ternational cosmetics companies had an annual sales figure of $2. 38 billion, nearly 1. 25 million sales representatives, and over 700 products, the majority of these being for the face. Cash and Cash (1982) noted that in 1979 U. S. consumers spent over $4 million on cosmetic products. They stated that, "Although this practice would seem to be a fascinating aspect of human be havior on the basis of its generality and resilience, social-behavioral scientists have largely ignored the phenomenon so plainly (or pleasingly) in front of their eyes. " Why should people be so concerned with their facial appearance? Many psychologists have argued (e. g. , Kleck & Rubenstein, 1975) not only that facial information is usually the first that is available to the perceiver, but also that it is continuously available during social interaction. Maruyama and Miller (1981) stated that "appearance is often the first dimension upon which a stranger can be evaluated. Since people tend to see others as integrated and consistent units, rather than as collections of situation-specific behaviors, a potent and immediately evident basis for an evaluation, such as physical appearance, should intrude into and affect any overall and subsequent evalua tion.
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