1 Introduction.- Fundamental Terms and Concepts.- Patterns and Kinetics of Growth in Cells, Tissues, Organs, and Whole Plants.- Discontinuities in Growth, Growth Periodicities, and Problems of Relative Growth Rate.- Mechanisms Controlling Cellular Differentiation.- to Plant Hormones.- References.- 2 Auxins.- Brief History of Discovery.- Went's Avena Coleoptile Curvature Test.- Early Isolations of IAA.- Synthetic Auxins.- Controversy Surrounding the Use of Certain Chlorophenoxy Acids as Herbicides and Defoliants.- Natural Occurrence of Auxins.- Auxin Biosynthesis.- "Free" and "Bound" Auxin.- Destruction of IAA.- Auxin Transport.- Relationships between Auxin Content and Growth.- Correlative Differences in Auxin Relations between Etiolated and Light-Grown and Dwarf and Normal Plants.- Mechanism of Auxin Action.- References.- 3 Glbberellins.- Brief History of Discovery.- Chemical Characterization of GAs.- Natural Occurrence of GAs.- GA Biosynthesis in Seeds.- GA Biosynthesis in Systems Other Than Seeds.- Effects of Light on GA Biosynthesis.- Role of GAs in Dwarfism.- Other Aspects of GA Metabolism.- Quantitative Changes in GA Content during Development.- Sites of GA Biosynthesis in Seed Plants.- Transport of GA.- Anatomical and Biophysical Basis of GA-Induced Growth.- Mechanism of Action of GA.- References.- 4 Cytokinins.- History of Discovery.- Terminology.- Isolation of Kinetin and the Search for Other Naturally Occurring Cytokinins.- Discovery of Natural Cytokinins.- Effects of Cytokinins and Other Hormones in Organisms Other Than Seed Plants.- Structure/Activity Relationships of the Cytokinins.- Biosynthesis and Metabolism.- Auxin and Cytokinin Biosynthesis in Crown Gall Tumors.- Mechanisms of Origin in tRNA.- Metabolic Consequences of the Presence of Cytokinins in tRNA.- Hormonal Activity of Free Cytokinins.- Cytokinin Binding Protein.- Effects on Moss Protonemata.- Some Physiological Effects on Seed Plants.- Translocation.- References.- 5 Abscisic Acid and Related Compounds.- History of Discovery.- Chemical Characterization.- Biosynthesis and Other Features of Metabolism.- Natural Occurrence of ABA.- Physiological Effects.- State of Chromatin in Dormant Tissues and the Mechanism of Action of ABA.- References.- 6 Ethylene.- Historical Background.- Ethylene and Fruit Ripening.- Interaction between Auxin and Ethylene.- Ethylene and Apical Dominance.- Inhibition of Root Growth and Role in Root Gravitropism.- Role in Emergence of Dicot Seedlings.- Role in Abscission.- Effects of Ethylene on Planes of Cell Expansion.- Other Effects of Ethylene.- Ethylene Biosynthesis and Mechanism of Action.- Ethylene Receptor.- References.- 7 Brassinosteroids.- Brief History of Discovery.- Chemistry of BRs.- Natural Occurrence of BRs.- Biological Effects.- Effects on Nucleic Acid and Protein Metabolism.- Practical Applications in Agriculture.- Some Problems and Prospects.- References.- 8 Phytochrome.- History of Discovery and Modern Description.- Sequence Analysis of Phytochrome.- Occurrence, Distribution, and Intracellular Localization.- Induction-Reversion versus High Irradiance Responses.- Non-Phytochrome-Mediated Photoresponses to Blue Light.- to Mechanism of Phytochrome Action.- Phytochrome Action in Nonphotoperiodic Photoresponses.- Phytochrome and Photoperiodic (Flowering) Responses.- Calcium Messenger System in Plants.- References.
Biochemistry and Physiology oj Plant Hormones is intended primarily as a textbook or major reference for a one-term intermediate-level or advanced course dealing with hormonal regulation of growth and development of seed plants for students majoring in biology, botany, and applied botany fields such as agronomy, forestry, and horticulture. Additionally, it should be useful to others who wish to become familiar with the topic in relation to their principal student or professional interests in related fields. It is assumed that readers will have a background in fundamental biology, plant physiology, and biochemistry. The dominant objective of Biochemistry and Physiology oj Plant Hor mones is to summarize, in a reasonably balanced and comprehensive way, the current state of our fundamental knowledge regarding the major kinds of hormones and the phytochrome pigment system. Written primarily for students rather than researchers, the book is purposely brief. Biochemical aspects have been given priority intentionally, somewhat at the expense of physiological considerations. There are extensive citations of the literature-both old and recent-but, it is hoped, not so much documentation as to make the book difficult to read. The specific choices of publications to cite and illustrations to present were made for different reasons, often to illustrate historical develop ment, sometimes to illustrate ideas that later proved invalid, occasionally to exemplify conflicting hypotheses, and most often to illustrate the current state of our knowledge about hormonal phenomena.
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