This book summarizes theoretical and empirical work that was performed in a large-scale, cross-university research project on the relationship between attitudes and behavior. The entire program has been funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), an institution that operates similarly to the American National Science Foundation. In 1981 the DFGruled to release the project for a five-year period with the option to extend if th~ extension proposal would suggest a major alteration of research goals. The participants are presently in the stage of transition between the first five-year allotment and the granted extension. We feel that this is the most opportune time to summarize the development of the project for an international audience. Until now only scattered publications have existed. This book is more than just a compilation of previously published results. Rather, it is the original contributions and a substantial share of newly published empirical results that guarantee an up-to-date exposition of the entire program. The general goal of the research group is to perform basic research in attaining explanations for the relationships between attitude and behavior and to improve the predictability of current predictor models. In pursuing this goal we are not primarily interested in the immediate strategy of redefining predictor variables within the framework of the general linear statistical model. Rather, we emphasize cognitive processes and structures that predispose a person's behavior, that accompany behavior, or that change as a result of prior behavior.
1. Strategies for Exploring Attitudes and Behavior.- Statistical Prediction Models.- Decision Research.- Goal-Directed Behavior.- The Process of Preparing for Action.- Affinity of Judgment and Behavior.- Latent Attitude Structures.- Heuristics and Biases.- The Experimental Approach.- 2. A Component Theory for Attitude Objects.- Definitions and Notations.- Basic Assumptions of the Component Theory.- Some Implications and Simplifying Assumptions.- Empirical Results.- Prediction of Behavior Toward Attitude Objects.- Formal Models.- 3. Cognitive Choice Processes and the Attitude-Behavior Relation.- Fishbein and Ajzen's Contribution to the Attitude-Behavior Problem.- The Theory of Reasoned Action, A Process Model?.- Principles for Analyzing Cognitive Choice Processes.- General Method of Empirical Investigation.- Criterion-Dependent Choice Models.- Empirical Results.- Comparison with Other Models.- Alternative Based Aggregation into Holistic Evaluations or Attitudes?.- General Discussion.- 4. Changing Choices: Why and How, If At All.- Theoretical Framework.- Experiments.- A Wider Perspective.- 5. A Computer Simulation System for Individual Decision Processes.- Attitude and Behavior.- Decision Research.- Computer Simulation.- A Computer Simulation System for Individual Decision Making.- Linking REASON and HEURISCO.- Recent Developments.- Appendix A: Description of the Heuristics Used in the Study by Jungermann et al. (1985).- Appendix B: Technical Realization of HEURISCO.- 6. Egotism and Altruism in Social Dilemmata.- Union Dilemma Game.- Prisoner's Dilemma Game.- Commons Dilemma Game.- Empirical Studies.- Conclusion.- 7. Predicting Behavior in Natural Settings: Four Field Studies.- Basic Concepts and Applied Perspectives in Attitude-Behavior Research.- Searching for Medium-Range Models of Behavior Prediction.- Putting the Models to Test.- General Discussion.- 8. Expectations and Decisions.- Theory.- Facets of Expectation.- Counter Model of Evaluated Expectations in Predicting Decisions.- Experiment: Changing Expectations.- Discussion.- 9. Behavior as an Expressive Function of Attitudes.- Prediction of Behavior.- The New Trend.- Structures of Attitude and Behavior.- Biases.- The Response Process.- Testing Aspects of the Theory.- Study 1.- Study 2.- Study 3.- Final Discussion.- Author Index.
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