With contributions by numerous experts
Primary care medicine is the new frontier in medicine. Every nation in the world has recognized the necessity to deliver personal and primary care to its people. This includes first-contact care, care based in a positive and caring personal rela tionship, care by a single healthcare provider for the majority of the patient's prob lems, coordination of all care by the patient's personal provider, advocacy for the patient by the provider, the provision of preventive care and psychosocial care, as well as care for episodes of acute and chronic illness. These facets of care work most effectively when they are embedded in a coherent integrated approach. The support for primary care derives from several significant trends. First, technologically based care costs have rocketed beyond reason or availability, occurring in the face of exploding populations and diminishing real resources in many parts of the world, even in the wealthier nations. Simultaneously, the primary care disciplines-general internal medicine and pediatrics and family medicine-have matured significantly. They have become viable alternatives to the specialty approach to care with its potential dehumanization, coordination problems, and increased cost.
I The Need: New Ways to Train Doctors.- 1 Towards the Education of Doctors Who Care for the Needs of the People: Innovative Approaches in Medical Education.- 2 Needed: A New Way to Train Doctors.- 3 A Medical School for the Future.- II Community-oriented Medical Education Today.- 4 Important Issues in Community-oriented Medical Education.- 5 Implementation of a Community-oriented Curriculum: The Task and the Problems.- 6 Medical Education in Action: Community-based Experience and Service in Nigeria.- 7 Community-based Medical Education in Nigeria: The Case of Bayero University.- III Problem-based Learning: Rationale and Examples.- 8 The Rationale Behind Problem-based Learning.- 9 Problem-based Medical Education: The Newcastle Approach.- 10 Toward an Emphasis on Problem Solving in Teaching and Learning: The McMaster Experience.- IV Evaluation in Innovative Medical Education.- 11 Evaluation of Health Sciences Education Programs: Program and Student Assessment at McMaster University.- 12 The Evaluation System at the Maastricht Medical School.- 13 Issues and Guidelines for Student and Program Evaluation.- 14 Teaching and Measuring Interviewing Skills in the Maastricht Medical Curriculum.- 15 How Effective Are Problem-based, Community-oriented Curricula: Experienced Evidence.- 16 Dutch Comparisons: Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Problem-based Learning on Medical Students.- V Faculty Development.- 17 Attitude Change Among Medical Teachers: Effects of a Workshop on Tutorials.- 18 Training Medical Teachers: Rationale and Outcomes.- 19 Preparing Faculty and Students for Problem-based Learning.- 20 Introducing Problem-based Learning into a Conventional Curriculum.- Conclusions.- Appendix A The Network Jacobus M. Greep and Henk G. Schmidt.- Appendix B List of Members of the Network of Community-oriented Educational Institutions for Health Sciences.
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