Soil Compaction in Agriculture: A View Toward Managing the Problem.- I. Introduction.- II. The Machine-Soil-Crop System.- III. Establishing a Decision Framework.- IV. Summary and Conclusions.- Acknowledgments.- References.- Hardsetting Soils: Behavior, Occurrence, and Management.- I. Introduction.- II. Scientific Basis for Hardsetting Behavior.- III. Soil Classification and Occurrence of Hardsetting Soils.- IV. Management and Amelioration of Hardsetting Soils.- V. Research and Development Priorities.- Acknowledgments.- References.- Role of Plinthite and Related Forms in Soil Degradation.- I. Introduction.- II. Definition of Plinthite and Associated Forms.- III. Processes Leading to Accumulation of Sesquioxides.- IV. Occurrence and Distribution.- V. Management Implications.- VI. Conclusion.- References.- Soil Erosion and Land Degradation: The Global Risks.- I. Introduction.- II. Technical Data on Soil Erosion.- III. Soil Erosion by Water.- IV. Wind Erosion.- V. Soil Erosion in the Tropics versus Temperate Regions.- VI. Soil Erosion and Food Production in the Tropics.- VII. Soil Erosion in Different Geographic Regions.- VIII. Conclusions.- References.- Soil Wetness and Anaerobiosis.- I. Introduction.- II. Causes of Soil Wetness.- III. Effects of Soil Wetness.- IV. Reclaiming Wet Soils.- V. Conclusions.- References.- Chemical Degradation of Soil.- I. Introduction.- II. Chemical Processes in Soil.- III. Examples of Chemical Soil Degradation.- IV. Prevention and Restoration of Chemically Degraded Soils.- V. Conclusions.- References.- Salt-Affected Soils: Their Reclamation and Management for Crop Production.- I. Introduction.- II. Classification of Salt-Affected Soils.- III. Measuring Salinity, Alkalinity, and Sodicity; Some Interrelationships and Influences on Soil Properties.- IV. Reclaiming Alkali Soils.- V. Crop Management in Alkali Soils.- VI. Reclamation of Saline Soils.- VII. Conclusions.- VIII. Perspective.- Acknowledgments.- References.- Biological Degradation of Soil.- I. Introduction.- II. Microbial Communities in Soil.- III. Aspects of Soil Biology Affected by Land Degradation.- IV. Effects of Toxic Substances on Microorganisms.- V. Effects of Mining Operations on Soil Biology.- VI. Effects of Land Management Practices on Soil Biology.- VII. Microorganisms as Pollutants.- VIII. Conclusions.- References.- Need for Action: Research and Development Priorities.- I. Introduction.- II. Resource Inventory.- III. Separating Emotions from Facts.- IV. Restoring Productivity of Degraded Lands.- V. Reaching Out.- VI. Conclusions.- References.
The purpose of Advances in Soil Science is to provide a forum for leading scientists to analyze and summarize the available scientific information on a subject, assessing its importance and identifying additional research needs. A wide array of subjects has been addressed by authors from many countries in the initial ten volumes of the series. The quick acceptance of the series by both authors and readers has been very gratifying and confirms our perception that a need did exist for a medium to fill the gap between the scientific journals and the comprehensive reference books. This volume is the first of the series devoted entirely to a single topic soil degradation. Future volumes will include both single-topic volumes as well as volumes containing reviews of different topics of soil science, as in the case of the first ten volumes. There are increasing concern and attention about managing natural re sources, particularly soil and water. Soil degradation is clearly one of the most pressing problems facing mankind. Although the spotlight regarding soil degradation in recent years has focused on Africa, concern about the degradation of soil and water resources is worldwide. The widespread con cern about global environmental change is also being linked to severe problems of soil degradation. Therefore, we are indeed pleased that the first volume of the series devoted to a single topic addresses such an impor tant issue. The current volume is also the first of the series involving a guest editor.
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