1 Basic Principles of Laboratory Safety.- 1 Safe Laboratory Techniques.- Pipets.- Syringes and Needles.- Centrifuging.- Blenders, Ultrasonic Disruptors, Grinders, and Lyophilizers.- Water Baths.- Cold Storage.- Ampoules.- Shaking Machines.- Laboratory Sterilizers.- Harvesting Cultures.- Laboratory Vacuum.- Glass and Glassware.- Controlling Aerosols.- 2 Protective Clothing and Personal Equipment.- Selecting Personal Protective Equipment.- Laboratory Clothing.- Gloves,Shoes, and Aprons.- Face Protection.- Eye Protection.- Hearing Protection.- 3 Safe Personal Habits and Practices.- Personal Habits.- Personal Practices.- 4 Housekeeping Procedures.- General Principles.- Floor Care.- Vacuum Cleaner Use.- Selection of a Cleaning Solution.- Insect Control.- 5 Principles of Decontamination and Sterilization.- General Principles.- Heat Sterilization.- Decontamination with Chemical Disinfectants.- Examples of Chemical Disinfectants.- Precautions with Liquid Disinfectants.- Vapor and Gas Disinfectants for Space Decontamination.- Precautions Necessary When Using Vapors and Gasesl.- Summary of Disinfectant Information.- Some Recommendations for Specific Uses of Chemical Disinfectants.- Sterilization Using Radiation.- Disinfection of Laboratory Spillsl.- Disposal of Infectious Wastes.- 2 Laboratory Facilities, Operations, and Practices 67.- 6 Specialized Equipment Facilities.- Ultracentrifuges.- Liquid Scintillation Countersl.- Spectrophotometers and Optical Equipment.- Summary.- 7 Waste Disposal in the Research Laboratory.- Disposal of Biological Wastes.- Disposal Nonbiological Wastes.- Mixed Waste.- 8 Glassware Washing Operations.- General Procedures.- Safety Precautions.- 9 Design and Use of Biological Safety Cabinets.- Air and Filter Barriers.- Classification of Cabinets.- Maximizing Cabinet Performance.- Guidelines for Proper Use of Cabinets.- 10 Facility Design and Physical Containment.- Primary and Secondary Barriers.- Designing Basic and Partial Containment Facilities.- Safety Procedures in the Partial Containment Facility.- 3 Biomedical Laboratory Safety.- 11 Hazards of Biological Agents.- History of Research with Biohazardous Agents.- Three Classes of Biohazardous Agents.- Overview of Etiological Agents.- Hazard Characteristics of Etiological Agents.- Overview of Oncogenic Viruses.- Hazard Characteristics of Oncogenic Viruses.- Overview of Recombinant DNA Technology.- Hazard Characteristics of Recombinant DNA Research.- 12 Chemical Hazards.- Risk Assessment of Chemical Hazards.- Classes of Chemical Hazards.- Hazards of Corrosive Chemicals.- Hazards of Toxic Chemicals.- Hazards of Chemical Sensitizers and Irritants.- Hazards of Chemical Carcinogens.- Hazards of Mutagens and Teratogens.- Flammable and Combustible Chemicals.- Explosives and Shock-Sensitive Chemicals.- Overview of Chemical Hazards.- Safe Storage of Chemicals.- Dealing with Exposure to Chemical Hazards.- Dealing with Exposure to Highly Toxic Chemicals.- Protective Equipment for Chemical Hazards.- Hood Efficiency and Energy Conservation.- 13 Hazards of Radioisotopes.- Characteristics of Ionizing Radiation.- Interaction of Radiation with Matter.- Measurement of Radioactivity.- Biological Effects of Radiation.- Nonoccupational Exposure to Radiation.- Risk Assessment for Radiation Safety.- Guidelines for Occupational Exposure.- Control of External Exposure.- Control of Internal Exposure.- Use of Monitoring and Surveying Devices.- Factors for Safe Use of Isotopes.- Safety Procedures for Tritium, 32P, and Radioiodine.- Decontamination.- Radioactive Waste Disposal.- 4 Control of Common Hazards.- 14 Physical and Mechanical Hazards.- Avoiding Mechanical Injury.- Improper Storage.- Blockage of Corridors.- Water-cooled Equipment.- Centrifuges.- Devices Producing Electromagnetic Radiation.- 15 Electrical Hazards.- Laboratory Hazards.- Electrical Service.- Connecting and Grounding Equipment.- Effects on Humans of Electrical Shock.- Rescue and First Aid.- 16. Fire Hazards.- How Fires are Ignited and Sustained.- Fire Theory Fire Protection Devices and Firefighting.- Flammable and Combustible Liquids.- Statutory Requirements for Fire Protection.- 17. Handling Compressed Gases.- Characteristics and Hazards of Compressed Gases.- Characteristics of the Cylinder and its Parts.- Safe Handling and Use of Compressed Gases.- Safe Handling and Use of Cryogenic Gases.- 5 The Components of the Effective Safety Program.- 18. Safety Regulations and Standards.- Regulations and Regulatory Agencies.- Occupational Safety and Health.- Environmental Protection.- Other Regulatory Agencies.- Standards and Standard-Setting Organizations.- Regulations and the Laboratory.- 19. Personnel Orientation and Training.- Orientation of New Employees.- Safety Training in Academic Laboratories.- Components of an Effective Training Program.- 20. Role of Medical and Health Factors.- Overview of the Medical Program.- Implementing a Medical Surveillance Program.- Programs for Biohazard and Toxic Chemical Research.- Need for Immunizations.- Special Medical Factors.- Allergic Reactions of Laboratory Workers.- Assessing Potential Risks.- 21. Accident Reduction and Emergency Planning.- 22. Designing a Safety Program.- Orientation and Training Program.- Medical and Health Program.- Assigning Responsibility for Safety.- Institutional Safety Committee.- Accident Analysis.- The Safety Manual.- Components of an Effective Safety Program.- Appendix 1: Cleaning Up Spills of Hazardous Agents.- Appendix 2: Hazard Characteristics of Common Toxic Chemicals.- Appendix 3: Hazard Warning Signs and Labels.- Appendix 4: Packaging and Shipping Hazardous Materials.- Appendix 5: Resources for Help and Information.- Appendix 6: Syllabus for a Safety Course.- References.- Additional Readings.
Safety is a word that has many connotations, of risk ofa possible accident that is acceptable conjuring up different meanings to different to one person· may not be acceptable to an people. What is safety? A scientist views safety other. This may be one reason why skydiving as a consideration in the design of an exper and mountain climbing are sports that are not iment. A manufacturing plant engineer looks as popular as are, say, boating or skiing. on safety as one of the necessary factors in But even activities that have high levels of developing a manufacturing process. A legis potential risk can be engaged in safely. How lator is likely to see safety as an important part can we minimize risks so that they decrease of an environmental law. A governmental ad to acceptable levels? We can do this by iden ministrator may consider various safety issues tifying sources of hazards and by assessing the when reviewing the environmental conse risks of accidents inherent to these hazards. quences of a proposed project. An attorney Most hazards that are faced in the laboratory may base a negligence suit on safety defects.
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