1. Introduction and Overview.- 2. Background Research.- Studies of the Great Depression.- More Recent Studies.- 3. Theoretical Approaches from the Study of Work, Employment, and Unemployment.- Stage Theories.- Jahoda's Functional Approach.- Job Content and Locus of Control.- Agency Theory.- Warr's Vitamin Model.- 4. Theoretical Approaches: Some Wider Frameworks.- Self-Concept Theory.- Stress and Coping Models.- Expectancy-Value Theory.- Attribution Theory.- Helplessness Theory.- Self-Efficacy Theory.- Life-Span Developmental Psychology.- Concluding Comments.- 5. Scales and Measures.- Self-Concept Measures.- Value Measures.- Affect and Psychological Well-Being.- Causal Attributions.- External Locus of Control.- Expectation and Valence Measures.- Time Structure.- Action Measures.- Financial Stress and Strain.- Unemployment History.- Social Support.- Conclusion.- 6. Youth Unemployment: Single-Group Studies.- Research with Unemployed Groups.- Research with Student Groups.- Concluding Comments.- 7. Youth Unemployment: Comparison-Group Studies.- Employed Versus Unemployed Groups: General Population.- Employed Versus Unemployed Groups: University Graduates.- Further Research on Time Structure.- Potential Social Action.- 8. Youth Unemployment: Longitudinal Studies.- Longitudinal Study of School-Leavers.- Transitions Between Employment and Unemployment.- Moderating Effects.- Job-Seeking Behavior.- Quality of Employment.- 9. Studies with Older-Age Groups.- Young Versus Middle-Aged Groups.- Reported Behavior Change in Older Men.- Job-Seeking Behavior: Further Findings.- Concluding Comments.- 10. Epilogue.- General Summary.- Some General Conclusions.- Theoretical Issues.- Research with Larger Units.- Final Comments.- References.- Author Index.
This book is concerned with the psychological effects of unemployment. In writing it I had two main aims: (1) to describe theoretical approaches that are relevant to understanding unemployment effects; and (2) to present the re sults of studies from a program of research with which I have been closely involved over recent years. In order to meet these aims I have organized the book into two main parts. I discuss background research and theoretical approaches in the first half of the book, beginning with research concerned with the psychological effects of unemployment during the Great Depression and continuing through to a dis cussion of more recent contributions. I have not attempted to review the liter ature in fine detail. Instead, I refer to some of the landmark studies and to the main theoretical ideas that have been developed. This discussion takes us through theoretical approaches that have emerged from the study of work, employment, and unemployment to a consideration of wider frameworks that can also be applied to further our understanding of unemployment effects.
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