1 Introduction.- 1 The Phyllosphere as an Ecologically Neglected Milieu: A Plant Pathologist's Point of View.- 2 The Habitat.- 2 The Leaf from the Inside and the Outside: A Microbe's erspective.- 3 Aerobiology: The Atmosphere as a Source and Sink for Microbes.- 4 Submerged Leaf Surfaces as a Microbial Habitat.- 5 Influence of Leaf Surface Features on Spore Deposition and the Epiphytic Growth of Phytopathogenic Fungi.- 6 Analysis of Spatial Patterns in the Phyllosphere.- 3 Microbial Community Components.- 7 Methods for Detection, Identification, and Enumeration of Microbes.- 8 The Yeast Community of Cacti.- 9 Fungal Endophytes of Tree Leaves.- 10 Fungal Endophytes of Grasses: Detrimental and Beneficial Associations.- 11 Crop Plants as a Source of Fungus Spores of Medical Importance.- 12 Association Between the Human Pathogen Sporothrix schenckii and Sphagnum Moss.- 4 Microbial Community Processes and Evolution.- 13 Fungal Community Dynamics.- 14 Bacterial Community Dynamics.- 15 Determinants of Epiphytic Fitness in Bacteria.- 16 Evolutionary Perspective on the Ice Nucleation Gene-Encoded Membrane Protein.- 17 Endophytes as Antagonists of Plant Pests.- 18 Beyond Pest Deterrence-Alternative Strategies and Hidden Costs of Endophytic Mutualisms in Vascular Plants.- 5 Modification of the Phyllosphere (Deliberate or Otherwise).- 19 Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants on Phyllosphere Microbial Communities.- 20 Genetically Engineered Endophytes as Biocontrol Agents: A Case Study from Industry.- 21 Interactions among Fungicides, Pathogens, Yeasts, and Nutrients in the Phyllosphere.- 22 Biocontrol of Foliar Fungal Diseases with Compost Extracts.- 23 Manipulation of Microbial Communities in the Phyllosphere.- 6 Conclusion.- 24 Future Research Directions in Phyllosphere Ecology.
This book is based on symposium addresses given at the 5th International Symposium on the Microbiology of the Phyllosphere, held in Madison, Wisconsin, from 31 July to 3 August 1990. The conference brought together about 100 scientists with diverse interests pertinent to the study of leaves and microbes, including bacteriology, mycology, medical microbiology, ecology, plant pathology, physiology, anatomy, molecular biology, statis tics, aerobiology, and meteorology. What has been learned since the first conference of the series was convened in 1979 at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, by T. F. Preece and C. H. Dickinson? Introductory remarks by N. J. Fokkema (Chapter 1) provide the pers pective of a plant pathologist about how the discipline has evolved and where we stand now more than 30 years after the pioneering Dutch scien tist J. Ruinen described the phyllosphere as an "ecologically neglected mili· eu. " The first major section of the book, Part 2, 'The Habitat," is comprised of five chapters and considers leaf-microbe relationships in an aerial and an aquatic setting. B. E. Juniper (Chapter 2) sets the stage by reviewing the physical and chemical features of leaves that may influence microbial growth. Aerial movement of microbes to and from leaves is considered by D. E. Pedgley (Chapter 3). The aquatic analog to air as a medium is assessed by R. Goulder and J. H. Baker (Chapter 4). Leaf surface features that influ ence fungal infection are discussed by E. A. Allen, H. C. Hoch, J. R.
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