Since the petroleum crisis in the 1970s, a lot of effort to save energy was made in industry, and remarkable achievements have been made. In the research and development concerning thermal energy, however, it was clar ified that one of the most important problems was manufacturing con densing systems with smaller size and higher performance. To solve this problem we need a method which synthesizes selections_ of the type of con denser, cooling tube and its arrangement, assessment of fouling on the cooling surfaces, consideration of transient characteristics of a condenser, etc. The majority of effort, however, has been to devise a surface element which enhances the heat transfer coefficient in condensation of a single or multicomponent vapor. Condensation phenomena are complexly affected by a lot of physical property values, and accordingly the results of theo retical research are expressed with several dimensionless parameters. On the other hand, the experimental research is limited to those with some specified cooling surfaces and some specified working fluids. Hence, the basic research of condensation is necessary for criticizing the enhancement effect as well as for an academic interest.
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