1 Early Studies on Ecto- and Extracellular Enzymes in Aquatic Environments.- References.- 2 Extracellular Enzymatic Interactions: Storage, Redistribution, and Interspecific Communication.- 2.1 Extracellular Enzymes: Their Position Relative to the Cell in the Environment.- 2.2 Strategy of External vs. "Free" Enzymes.- 2.3 Immobilization of Enzyme Activity.- 2.4 Humic Loadings to Fresh Waters.- 2.5 Regulation of Enzyme Activity in Aquatic Ecosystems.- 2.6 Summary Conclusions.- References.- 3 Environmental Control of the Synthesis and Activity of Aquatic Microbial Ectoenzymes.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Experimental Design.- 3.3 Ectoenzyme Location in Bacteria.- 3.4 Alkaline Phosphatase.- 3.5 ?-Glucosidase.- 3.6 Leucine Aminopeptidase.- 3.7 Control of Ectoenzyme Synthesis and Activity-Conclusions.- References.- 4 Microbial Extracellular Enzyme Activity: A New Key Parameter in Aquatic Ecology.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Methods and Experimental Design.- 4.3 Activity of Bacteria Attached to Detritus.- 4.4 Activity of Bacteria Attached to Inorganic Surfaces.- 4.5 Depth Profile of Aminopeptidase Activity.- 4.6 Importance of Extracellular Enzyme Activity in Microbial Activity in Marine Ecosystems.- References.- 5 Ecological Aspects of Enzymatic Activity in Marine Sediments.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Methodological Approach.- 5.3 Localization of Extracellular Enzymes.- 5.4 Spatial Distribution of Enzymatic Activity in Sediments.- 5.5 Regulation of Enzymatic Activity in Sediments.- 5.6 Conclusions.- References.- 6 Extracellular Enzyme Activity in Eutrophic and Polyhumic Lakes.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Environmental Characteristics of the Studied Lakes.- 6.3 DOM Composition and Dynamics.- 6.4 DOM-Enzyme Interactions.- 6.5 ?-Glucosidase Studies.- 6.6 Aminopeptidase Studies.- 6.7 Enzyme Endo- and Exo-Cleaving Mechanisms and Synergistic Action.- 6.8 Environmental and Regulatory Aspects of Microbial Extracellular Enzyme Activity.- 6.9 Position and Importance of Extracellular Enzymes in Detritus Processing.- References.- 7 Protein Degradation in Aquatic Environments.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Experimental Studies of the Kinetics of Protein Degradation.- 7.3 Modelling Bacterial Growth on Complex Organic Matter.- References.- 8 Peptidase Activity in River Biofilms by Product Analysis.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Methods and Experimental Design.- 8.3 Results.- 8.4 Discussion.- References.- 9 Aminopeptidase Activity in Lakes of Differing Eutrophication.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Methods.- 9.3 Results and Discussion.- References.- 10 Role of Ecto-Phosphohydrolases in Phosphorus Regeneration in Estuarine and Coastal Ecosystems.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Study Areas.- 10.3 Methods and Experimental Design.- 10.4 Physicochemistry of the Three Ecosystems.- 10.5 Phosphohydrolytic Activity and Phosphorus Regeneration.- 10.6 Significance of Microbial Ecto-phosphohydrolases in Estuarine and Coastal Waters.- References.- 11 Bacterial Phosphatases from Different Habitats in a Small, Hardwater Lake.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Methods and Experimental Design.- 11.3 Results.- 11.4 Discussion.- References.- 12 Phosphatase Activity in an Acid, Limed Swedish Lake.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Methods and Environmental Analyses.- 12.3 Results.- 12.4 Discussion.- References.- 13 Phosphatase Activities in Lake Kinneret Phytoplankton.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Sampling.- 13.3 Results and Discussion.- References.- 14 Filtration and Buoyant Density Characterization of Algal Alkaline Phosphatase.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Methods.- 14.3 Results and Discussion.- References.- 15 Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Activity in Epilimnetic Lake Water.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Methods.- 15.3 Results and Discussion.- References.- 16 Chitinase Activity in Estuarine Waters.- 16.1 Introduction.- 16.2 Study Location and Methods.- 16.3 Chitinase Assay.- 16.4 Chitinase Activity in Water and Sediments.- 16.5 Significance of Chitinolytic Activity in Aquatic Environments-Conclusions.- References.- 17 Significance of Extracellular Enzymes for Organic Matter Degradation and Nutrient Regeneration in Small Streams.- 17.1 Introduction.- 17.2 Methods and Experimental Design.- 17.3 Results and Discussion.- References.- 18 Enzyme Activities in Billabongs of Southeastern Australia.- 18.1 Introduction.- 18.2 Methods and Experimental Design.- 18.3 Results.- 18.4 Discussion.- References.- 19 Hydrolytic Activities of Organisms and Biogenic Structures in Deep-Sea Sediments.- 19.1 Introduction.- 19.2 Methods.- 19.3 Results and Discussion.- References.
Organic matter in aquatic environments consists mostly of large compounds which cannot be taken up and utilized directly by microbial cells. Prior to incorporation, polymeric materials undergo degradation by cell-bound and extracellular enzymes produced by these microbes; in fact, such enzymatic mobilization and transformation is the key process which regulates the turnover of organic as well as inorganic compounds in aquatic environments. This volume brings together studies on enzymatic degradation processes from disciplines as diverse as water and sediment research, bacterial and algal aquatic ecophysiology, eutrophication, and nutrient cycling and biogeochemistry, in both freshwater and marine ecosystems. Its scope extends from fundamental research exploring the contribution of microbial enzymatic processes to whole ecosystem functioning to practical applications in water biotechnology. The first comprehensive publication providing an overview of this emerging field of enzymology, Microbial Enzymes in Aquatic Environments will be of great interest to ecologists and microbiologists alike.
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