For a number of decades now the study of children's memory development, with few exceptions, has been synonymous with the development of pro cesses that lead to the initial encoding and immediate retention of informa tion. Although there is little doubt that the study of such acquisition pro cesses is central to understanding memory development, the long-term retention of previously encoded information represents at least as important a component of children's memory. Indeed, as both students of memory development and educators, our interest is in the maintenance and utiliza tion of knowledge over considerable periods of time, not just in the immedi ate (e. g. , classroom) context. Clearly, then, without an understanding of how recently acquired information is maintained in memory over extended periods of time, our theories of long-term memory development remain incomplete at best. Although children's forgetting and reminiscence was a topic of inquiry early in this century, it is only recently, due in part to the current controversy concerning the reliability of children's eyewitness testimony, that the study of long-term retention has resurfaced in the scientific literature. The purpose of this volume is to draw together some of the principals involved in this resurgence to summarize their recent research programs, present new and previously unpublished findings from their labs, and outline the issues they believe are important in the study of children's long-term retention.
I Fundamental Aspects of Retention.- 1 A Functional and Cognitive Analysis of Infant Long-Term Retention.- Review of the Literature.- Training Procedure and Retention Measures.- Long-Term Retention Paradigms.- The Specificity of Infants' Memories.- The Time-Dependent Nature of Memory Retrieval.- Contextual Constraints on Long-Term Retention.- The Effect of Multiple Reminders on Long-Term Retention.- Modification of Infants' Memories.- General Discussion.- References.- 2 Measuring the Development of Children's Amnesia and Hypermnesia.- Definitions.- Empirical and Conceptual Issues.- Partitioning Components of Long-Term Retention Performance.- Experiments 1 and 2.- Experiment 1: Results and Discussion.- Experiment 2: Results and Discussion.- General Discussion.- General Implications and Conclusions.- References.- 3 Reasoning, Remembering, and Their Relationship: Social, Cognitive, and Developmental Issues.- Short-Term Retention.- Long-Term Retention.- Summary.- References.- II Pragmatic Aspects of Retention.- 4 Children's Memory for Salient Events: Implications for Testimony.- Memory in Young Children.- Framework for Examining Children's Autobiographical Memory.- Explorations of Children's Memory for Visits to the Doctor.- Implications for Interviewing.- References.- 5 The Misinformation Effect: Transformations in Memory Induced by Postevent Information.- Performance on the Modified Test.- Are Memories Ever "Destroyed"?.- The Yes/No Test.- Developmental Issues.- References.- 6 The Role of Memory Impairment in Children's Suggestibility.- The Misinformation Effect.- What Factors Contribute to Misinformation Phenomena?.- Preschool Children's Susceptibility to Memory Impairment.- Assessment of Memory Impairment with the Modified Test Procedure.- Assessment of Memory Impairment with Recall Procedures.- Current Status of the Memory Impairment Claim.- Misinformation Phenomena, Memory Impairment, and the Development of Forgetting.- Memory Impairment and the Suggestibility of Children's Memory.- Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 7 The Suggestibility of Children's Memory: A Social-Psychological and Cognitive Interpretation.- Setting the Stage: A Brief Note on Adult Suggestibility.- Current Trends in Children's Suggestibility Research.- Social Influences on Children's Suggestibility.- Study 1.- Study 2.- Discussion of Studies 1 and 2.- Cognitive Influences on Children's Suggestibility.- Conclusion.- References.- III Current Issues and Future Directions.- 8 Toward a Theory of the Development of Long-Term Retention.- Age Trends in Forgetting and Reminiscence.- Contributions of Storage and Retrieval Factors to Long-Term Retention Development.- Reliability of Children's Long-Term Retention.- An Agenda for Research on Children's Long-Term Retention.- References.- Author Index.
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