A book such as this one necessarily entails the effort of many individuals. Its first seed was a workshop in 1988 that one of us (K. L. C. ) designed and directed at the City University of New York Graduate Center as part of a series of conferences and workshops on topics in neuropsychology spon sored by the Institute for Research in Behavioral Neuroscience (IRBN). At that time, studies in the efficacy of olfaction as an alternative modality of stimulation in brain-injured adults were taking place at IRBN. The work shop helped to spark many new ideas among IRBN's staff, leading to various projects in clinical intervention, some of which are discussed in this volume. We soon discovered that clinical interest in olfaction was steadily increasing, and that this modality was in many ways on a par with the rest. Along with progress in the clinical investigation of olfaction, an abundance of work has been published in the basic science of the field. Ideas such as the regeneration of olfactory neurons and the use of these neurons in trans plantation took hold and were proved to be viable ones. These develop ments along with a profusion of techniques that allow a closer look at the anatomy and physiology of olfaction, have contributed to the accelerated pace with which this field is now advancing. Dr.
I: Historical Perspectives.- 1. Olfaction and the Primitive : Nineteenth-Century Medical Thinking on Olfaction.- Pathologies of the Olfactory Sense.- The Place of Olfaction in Nineteenth-Century Evolutionary Theory.- Olfaction and Brain Evolution: Broca and the "Great Limbic Lobe".- Sexology and "Perversions" of Olfaction.- From "Smell Brain" to Limbic System: The Work of Papez and MacLean.- References.- II: The Basic Science of Olfaction.- 2. Morphology and Plasticity of the Vertebrate Olfactory Epithelium.- Morphology.- Biochemical Characteristics.- Neural Plasticity.- Recent Advances.- Summary.- References.- 3. Molecular Aspects of Olfaction.- Functional Anatomy of the Olfactory Neuroepithelium.- Odorant Recognition.- Signal Transduction in Olfactory Receptor Cells.- Olfactory Tissue-Specific Proteins of Undetermined Function.- References.- 4. The Biochemistry of Olfactory Neurons: Stages of Differentiation and Neuronal Subsets.- Biochemical Correlates of the Differentiation of Olfactory Neurons.- Molecular Correlates of Growth in Olfactory Neurons.- Biochemically Defined Subclasses of Olfactory Neurons.- General Conclusions and Synthesis.- References.- 5. Neuroanatomical Substrates of Olfaction.- Cyto- and Chemoarchitecture of the Olfactory Bulb.- Outputs of the Olfactory Bulb.- Organization and Neurochemistry of Central ("Centrifugal") Afferents to the Olfactory Bulb.- Afferents to the AOB.- Secondary Olfactory Connections and Integration.- References.- 6. Neurophysiology of the Olfactory Bulb.- The Olfactory Code and the Anatomy of the Olfactory Nerve.- Neural Processing in the Glomerular Layer.- The Mitral/Granule Inhibitory System.- Responses of Bulb Neurons to Odors and Electrical Stimulation.- Connections between the Piriform Cortex, AON, and Olfactory Bulb.- Modulatory Control of Synaptic Processes in the Olfactory Bulb.- Conclusion.- References.- 7. Olfactory Learning and Memory in the Rat: A "Model System" for Studies of the Neurobiology of Memory.- Rodent Olfaction as a "Model System" for Studies on the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory.- Discrete Limbic Pathways are Critical for Dissociable Olfactory Memory Processes.- Piriform Cortex as a Storage Site for Olfactory Memories.- Conclusions.- References.- 8. Sex Differences in Olfaction in Mammals.- Olfaction and Reproduction.- Sexual Dimorphism in Olfactory Structures.- Sex Differences in Olfactory Sensitivity.- Model Systems for Studying Sex Differences in Olfaction.- Conclusions.- References.- III: Clinical Issues in the Study of Olfaction.- 9. Techniques in the Quantitative Study of Human Olfaction.- Stimulus Control and Measurement.- Thresholds.- Measurement of Perceived Odor Intensity.- References.- 10. Stimulus Selection in the Design and Interpretation of Olfactory Studies.- Survey of the Literature.- Discussion.- References.- 11. Assessing Olfaction: Cognitive and Measurement Issues.- Measuring Performance on Yes/No Tasks.- Signal Detection Theory with C.- Two-High Threshold Theory.- Comparison of the Two Approaches.- Olfactory Identification in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease.- Olfactory Identification in Down's Syndrome and Idiopathic Mental Retardation.- Summary.- References.- 12. A Neurolinguistic Perspective of the Study of Olfaction.- Language-Odor Interaction: A Review.- Misnaming in Aphasia and Dementia.- Conclusions.- References.- 13. Human Olfaction in Infancy and Early Childhood.- Sensitivity and Discrimination.- Hedonic Discriminations.- The Functional Importance of Olfaction.- Conclusion.- References.- 14. Olfaction and Human Sexuality: A Psychoanalytic Approach.- Olfaction and Sexuality: Early Writings.- Olfaction and Sexuality: Later Views.- Olfaction and Psychosexual Development.- Olfaction and Oedipus.- Olfaction and Sexuality: Physiologic Views.- Conclusions.- References.- 15. Olfaction and Emotion.- Comparing Odors to Other Stimuli.- Olfaction as an Emotional Sense: Eight Propositions.- The Uses of Odor in the Study of Affect.- Refe
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