This Festschrift is a collection of essays contributed by students, colleagues, and ad mirers to honor an eminent scholar on a special anniversary: Charles Hard Townes on the occasion of his 80th birthday, July 28, 1995. In 1964, Townes shared the Nobel Prize in physics with Alexander Mikhailovich Prokhorov and Nikolai Gen nadyevich Basov "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle. " His contributions have covered a much wider area, however. His fruitful interests spanning several decades have included many scientific subjects, includ ing, microwave spectroscopy and astrophysics (other articles in this volume will expand further on this point). He has also contributed to public service, having served as the chairman of the Science and Technology Advisory Committee for NASA's Apollo program, and as a member and vice chairman of the President's Science Advisory Committee. As the enormous breadth of contributions from his students shows, he has educated scholars who are now in a wide range of fields. The contributions from his many admirers, among whom are nine fellow Nobel laureates, attest to his impact on many disciplines ranging from electrical engi neering to medicine. His influence extends even to theology, as is indicated by one essay. The broadly international character of this Festschrift reflects his deep belief in the international, universal nature of science.
1 Introduction: Charles Townes as I Have Known Him.- 2 Methane Optical Frequency Standard.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Two-mode He-Ne Laser with a Methane Absorption Cell.- 2.3 Absolute Frequency Measurements.- 2.4 Determination of the Unperturbed Transition Frequency(? = 3.39 ?m).- 2.5 Theoretical Estimates of Methane Standard Accuracy.- 2.5.1 Second-order Doppler Effect.- 2.5.2 Detuning of the Active and Absorption Line Centers.- 2.5.3 Transverse Inhomogeneity of the Gain.- 2.6 Future Possibilities.- 3 Mid-infrared Lines as Astrophysical Diagnostics: Two Decades of Problems and Promise.- 3.1 Youthful Enthusiasm.- 3.2 General Confusion.- 3.3 Maybe We Know What We're Doing After All.- 3.4 Conclusion.- 4 The Laser Stabilitron.- 4.1 Background.- 4.2 Method of Intensity Stabilization.- 4.3 Coupled Field Equations and Photon Noise.- 4.4 Possible Systems for Realizing a Stabilitron.- 5 Self-Regulated Star Formation in Molecular Clouds.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Structure and Stability of Molecular Clouds.- 5.2.1 Gravitational Stability.- 5.2.2 The Dissipation Problem.- 5.3 Self-Regulated Star Formation.- 5.3.1 Energy Gain: Low-Mass Star Formation.- 5.3.2 Equilibrium Star Formation Rate.- 5.3.3 Photoionization-regulated Star Formation.- 5.3.4 Self-regulated Equilibrium States.- 5.4 Discussion.- 5.5 Summary.- 5.6 Acknowledgments.- 6 Long-baseline Interferometric Imaging at 11 Microns with 30 Milliarcsecond Resolution.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 The Infrared Spatial Interferometer.- 6.3 Highlights of Recent Results from the ISI.- 6.3.1 Broad Conclusions on Dust Shell Characteristics.- 6.3.2 Masers.- 6.4 Direct Inversion of Visibility Data.- 6.4.1 Methodology.- 6.4.2 Results.- 6.5 Conclusions.- 6.6 Acknowledgments.- 7 Ammonia in the Giant Planets.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 The Upper Atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn.- 7.3 The Collision of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter.- 7.4 Acknowledgments.- 8 Collision Broadening and Radio-frequency Spectroscopy.- 8.1 Prehistory.- 8.2 Emission Spectroscopy.- 8.3 Laboratory Measurements of Microwave Absorption.- 8.4 The Inversion Spectrum of Ammonia.- 8.5 Further Studies of Collision Broadening at Oxford.- 8.6 High Resolution Microwave Spectroscopy.- 8.7 The Switch to Electron Paramagnetic Resonance.- 8.8 Atomic and Molecular Beams.- 8.9 Conclusion.- 8.10 Postscript.- 9 Meeting Charles H. Townes.- 10 Population Inversion and Superluminality.- 10.1 Introduction: The Ammonia Maser Revisited.- 10.2 Historical Review of Some Faster-than-Light Phenomena.- 10.3 Theory of Wave Packet Propagation in Transparent, Population-inverted Media.- 10.4 The Kramers-Kronig Relations Necessitate Superluminality.- 10.5 Considerations of Energy and of Superposition.- 10.6 Einstein Causality, and Sommerfeld and Brillouin's Wave Velocities.- 10.7 An Experiment in an Optically Pumped Rubidium Vapor Cell.- 10.8 Concluding Personal Remarks.- 10.9 Acknowledgments.- 11 The Autler-Townes Effect Revisited.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Dressed-atom Approach to the Autler-Townes Effect.- 11.3 The Autler-Townes Effect in the Optical Domain.- 11.3.1 Case of Two Optical Transitions Sharing a Common Level.- 11.3.2 Single Optical Transition-The Mollow Triplet.- 11.4 The Autler-Townes Effect in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.- 11.5 Doublets of Dressed States with a Position-dependent Rabi Frequency.- 11.5.1 Gradient (or Dipole) Forces.- 11.5.2 High Intensity Sisyphus Effect.- 12 Parity Nonconservation in Atoms and Searches for Permanent Electric Dipole Moments.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Parity Nonconservation in Atoms.- 12.2.1 General Background.- 12.2.2 PNC Experiments.- 12.3 Search for Electric Dipole Moments.- 12.4 A Brief Personal Note.- 13 Stark Dynamics and Saturation in Resonant Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Weak Ground State Coupling Limit.- 13.3 Pure Raman Saturation.- 13.4 Full Resonance.- 14 A Raman Study of Fluorinated Ethanes Adsorbed on Zeolite NaX.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Experimental.- 14.
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