Ultra-High Reynolds Number Flows Using Cryogenic Helium: An Overview.- Helium Flows at Ultra-High Reynolds and Rayleigh Numbers: Opportunities and Challenges.- European Large Scale Helium Refrigeration.- Cryogenic Wind Tunnels for Aerodynamic Testing.- Application of Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems to Ultra-High Reynolds Number Facilities.- The Temperature and Pressure Dependencies of Fluid Properties: Implications for Achieving Ultra-High Rayleigh and Reynolds And Rayleigh Numbers.- Advanced Measurement Techniques for Flow Diagnostics.- Current Status of Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Doppler Anemometry Instrumentation.- Application of a Laser Doppler Velocimeter and Some Visualization Methods to the Measurement of He II Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Phenomena.- Cryogenic Thermometry for Turbulence Research: An Overview.- Realization of a 107 Reynolds Number Helium Facility.- The Mean Velocity Profile in Turbulent Pipe Flow.- Instrument Development For High Reynolds Number Flows in Liquid Helium.- Free Thermal Convection in Low Temperature Helium Gas.- Buoyant Plumes and Internal Waves: Two Experiments in Turbulent Convection.- High-Rayleigh Number Turbulence of a Low Prandtl Number Fluid.- Recent Velocity Measurements in Turbulent Thermal Convection.- Convection in 3He-Superfluid-4He: A Novel System for Studying Convective Instabilities and Turbulence.- Experiments on Strong Turbulence: Do We Really Measure What We Say We Measure?.- Turbulent Mixing of a Passive Scalar.- A Brief Overview of the RHIC Cryogenic System.- High Reynolds Number Testing Requirements in (Civilian) Aeronautics.- Considerations For Small Detectors in High Reynolds Number Experiments.- Helium Gas Turbulence Experiments in Grenoble: Techniques and Results.- Turbulence Driven Between Counter-rotating Disks in Low Temperature Helium Gas.- Some Issues in Geophysical Turbulence and the Need for Accurate High Reynolds Number Measurements.- Does Fully-Developed Turbulence Exist?.- Hydrodynamic Turbulence: a 19th Century Problem with a Challenge for the 21st Century.- Are Scalings of Turbulence Universal?.- Vortex Lines in Non-Uniform Flows.- Modeling of Sea Storms on Cryogenic Installations.- Decay of Grid Turbulence in Superfluid 4He.- First Images of Controlled Convection in Liquid Helium.- High Reynolds number [R? = O (106)] Boundary Layer Turbulence in the Atmospheric Surface layer Above Western Utah's Salt Flats.
Scientists have learned to use liquid and gaseous helium to overcome the limitations imposed by the usual wind and water tunnels for testing the performance of aircraft or the behavior of the atmosphere. This book covers fundamental studies of the turbulence problem, practical applications of turbulence, superfluid turbulence, cryogenic turbulence research, and new types of miniature flow instrumentation, all which are crucial for high Reynolds number research. This state-of-the-art presentation will interest physicists in fluid dynamics, engineers working with turbulent flows, and naval and aerospace engineers testing realistic parameter ranges.
Because of their extremely low viscosity, liquid helium and ultra-cold helium gas provide ideal media modeling flows that occur in a variety of extreme conditions, such as satellite reentry, where they are difficult to study. The refrigerators installed at several physics laboratories that supply liquid helium for particle accelerators (such as the one intended for the SSC in Texas or the one at Brookhaven National Laboratory) is so great that they can also supply cold helium for such fluid dynamics studies. This book surveys the challenges and prospects for such research. It will be of interest to physicist interested in fluid dynamics,