Scientists have learned to use liquid and gaseous helium to overcome the limitations imposed by the usual wind and water tunnels for testing the performance of aircraft or the behavior of the atmosphere. This book covers fundamental studies of the turbulence problem, practical applications of turbulence, superfluid turbulence, cryogenic turbulence research, and new types of miniature flow instrumentation, all which are crucial for high Reynolds number research. This state-of-the-art presentation will interest physicists in fluid dynamics, engineers working with turbulent flows, and naval and aerospace engineers testing realistic parameter ranges.
Because of their extremely low viscosity, liquid helium and ultra-cold helium gas provide ideal media modeling flows that occur in a variety of extreme conditions, such as satellite reentry, where they are difficult to study. The refrigerators installed at several physics laboratories that supply liquid helium for particle accelerators (such as the one intended for the SSC in Texas or the one at Brookhaven National Laboratory) is so great that they can also supply cold helium for such fluid dynamics studies. This book surveys the challenges and prospects for such research. It will be of interest to physicist interested in fluid dynamics,