For environmental and economic reasons, laminates are becoming increasingly important as a replacement for solid sheets and paint finishes in many industries, including transportation, packaging, and construction. The processes of film formability in relation to extensive deformation and elevated temperatures experienced in conventional processing technologies, such as thermoforming, are poorly understood by most engineers.
This book starts with explaining the fundamentals of lamination and plastics thermoforming technologies and its current and new developments. It focuses on properties and thermoforming mechanics of plastic films and in particular single and multilayered laminates, including barrier films. The author covers production processes, such as extrusion, calendaring, and casting, as well as mechanical and impact testing methods. He also describes how testing protocols developed for metals can be leveraged for plastic films and laminates and includes a thorough discussion on methodologies to perform optical strain analysis.
Applications in transportation vehicles and packaging, including packaging for food, medical and electronics applications, sports equipment, and household appliances, are discussed. Safety, recycling and environmental aspects of thermoforming and its products complete the book.