Foreword [Harri Vainio]Chapter 1
Environmental and occupational factors of cancer [PB, SA]This chapter contains general information that assists understanding of the rest of the book, such as
- interpretation of epidemiological evidence and terminology
- classification of carcinogenic agents and factors
- introduction to molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis
- host susceptibility factors, genetic and acquired (life-style and environment)
- biomarkers of exposure and disease; applications in research and practice
- means of prevention of occupational cancer
Historical overview of occupational cancer research and control [Jack Siemiatycki]Chapter 3
Occupational cancer burden [PB]Contains epidemiological data from Western as well as low- and medium-resource countries
Genetics and gene-environment interactions [Karl T. Kelsey]Chapter 5
Mechanisms of carcinogenesis [SA, Karl T. Kelsey]Chapters 6-23
6-23 Organ-specific chapters contain organized data (see example of lung cancer below) about occupational factors of specific cancers. Often the same chemical or physical agents may be occupational or related to life-style or environmental factors. Exposures other than occupational may have synergistic effect on the cancer risk and are important to discuss. Cancer sites and examples of occupational risk factors are listed below. Main chapters would include:
Cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx and nasopharynx [Daniele Luce]- risk factors : formaldehyde, wood dust, chlorophenols, pesticides, chromates, nickel, arsenic, welding fumes, textile dust, HPV, tobacco etc.
Cancers of the gastrointestinal tract [Farhad Islami, Farin Kamangar]- Oesophagus (adenocarcinoma): asbestos, cement dust, pesticides, acetaldehyde
- Cardia (adenocarcinoma): asphalt fumes, wood dust, pesticides
- Gastric cancer: cement dust, quartz, diesel exhaust, coal and tin mining, metal processing, rubber manufacturing, N-nitroso compounds etc.
Malignant tumours of the liver [Amr Soliman]- occupational risk factors: vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride, solvents, chlorinated hydrocarbons, arsenic
- other risk factors: hepatitis infection, aflatoxin, ethanol
- Angiosarcoma of the liver: vinyl chloride
Pancreatic cancer [Eric Duell]- occupational risk factors not known
- others: tobacco, ethanol
Sinonasal cancer [Daniele Luce]- risk factors depending on histological type: formaldehyde, wood dust, chlorophenols, pesticides, chromates, nickel, arsenic, welding fumes, textile dust, HPV, tobacco etc.
Laryngeal cancer [PB]- PAH, combustion products, diesel fumes, wood dust, viruses, asbestos, alcohol, tobacco etc.
Lung cancer [PB, SA, for silica/asbestos-related LC in addition Douglas Henderson or Victor Roggli]- asbestos, silica, PAH, arsenic, chromates etc.
Malignant tumours of bone and soft tissues [contributors to be decided later]- Bone sarcomas: several risk factors like pesticides, woodworking, metal working suspected
- Soft tissue sarcomas: pesticides, chlorophenols, dioxin etc., suspected
Malignant tumours of the skin [Philippe Autier]- risk factors: UV light, PAH, coal-tar, arsenic, viruses, radon etc.
- Mycosis fungoides: halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons/pesticides, UVR, infections
Malignant mesothelioma [Antti Tossavainen, Francoise Galateau-Salle]- asbestos
Breast cancer [Elisabete Weiderpass]- occupational and other environmental risk factors: shift-work, possibly DDT before puberty
- others: HRT
Malignant tumours of the female reproductive system [Elisabete Weiderpass]- occupational risk factors not known
- others: smoking, HRT, HPV
Malignant tumours of the male reproductive system [Lorenzo Richiardi]- Prostate cancer: possible occupational risk factors pesticides, PAH, metal working fluids/mineral oils
- Testicular cancer: occupational risk factors not known
Kidney cancer [Ghislaine Scelo]- occupational risk factors: arsenic, cadmium, lead, solvents
- others: smoking, environmental tobacco smoke
Über den Autor
Paolo Boffetta, MD, MPH
Bluhdorn Professor of International Community Medicine
Director, Institute for Translational Epidemiology
Associate Director for Population Sciences, Tisch Cancer Institute
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
One Gustave L. Levy Place
New York, NY, USA
Sisko Anttila MD, PhD
Helsinki University Central Hospital, Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa, Laboratory Services, HUSLAB, and
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
Historical Overview of Occupational Cancer Research.- Genetics and Gene-Environment Interactions.- Mechanisms of Environmental and Occupational Carcinogenesis.- Cancer of the Oral Cavity, Pharynx and Nasopharynx.- Pancreatic Cancer.- Cancers of the Intestine, Liver and Biliary Tract.- Sinonasal Cancer.- Laryngeal Cancer.- Lung cancer (exposure assessment, pathology, epidemiology).- Lung Cancer: Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis.- Lung Cancer: Genetic Susceptibility.- Lung Cancer: Molecular Markers.- Malignant Mesothelioma: Epidemiology.- Malignant Mesothelioma: Clinical and Imaging Findings.- Malignant Mesothelioma: Asbestos Exposure.- Malignant Mesothelioma: Pathology.- Malignant Mesothelioma: Mechanism of Carcinogenesis.- Malignant Mesothelioma: Genetic Susceptibility.- Malignant Mesothelioma: Molecular Markers.- Neoplasm of Soft Tissues.- Malignant Neoplasms of the Skin.- Breast Cancer.- Malignant Tumors of the Female Reproductive System.- Malignant Tumors of the Male Reproductive System.- Kidney Cancer.- Bladder Cancer.- Malignant Tumors of the Central Nervous System.- Lymphohematopoietic Malignancies.- Occupational Cancer Burden.- Occupational Carcinogens and Cancer in Children.- Strategies for Primary Prevention of Occupational Cancer.- Screening for Occupational Cancer.- Role of Registers in Occupational Cancer Control.- Appendix I Questionnaire on Exposure to Asbestos.
This book is a comprehensive guide to occupational factors of malignant diseases. It discusses potentially work-related malignancies, in the context of exposure assessment, specific clinical and pathological features of occupational cancer and biomarkers of exposure and disease. Epidemiological data about risk ratios of the cancer in question are reviewed for various occupations and with exposure to specific carcinogens, carcinogenic mechanisms, host susceptibility factors (genetic and other) and other environmental and life-style risk factors. Aspects such as surveillance of workers exposed to carcinogens and strategies for prevention of occupational cancer are also discussed.
Occupational Cancers is aimed at oncologists, pathologists, residents in training, clinical researchers, clinicians in occupational health, epidemiologists, pulmonologists, lawyers and public health officials.
Multidisciplinary view of occupational factors of cancer for readers with different backgrounds
Covers epidemiology, clinical features and pathology, as well as molecular carcinogenic mechanisms and biomarkers
Emphasizes prevention at an individual level as well as in populations and familiarizes readers with preventive strategies