I - Fundamental Fluid Mechanics.- 1. Fluids and solids, blood and tissues.- 2. Conservation of mass.- 3. Conservation of momentum and Bernoulli theorem.- 4. Conservation of momentum and viscosity.- 5. Boundary layer and wall shear stress.- 6. Simple flows and concepts of cardiovascular interest.- References to Part I.- II - Vortex Dynamics.- 7. Definitions.- 8. Dynamics of vorticity.- 9. Boundary layer separation.- 10. Vortex formation.- 11. Three-dimensional vortex formation.- 12. Energy loss and force of vortex formation.- 13. Vortex interactions.- 14. A mention to turbulence.- References to Part II.- III - Cardiac Vortex Formation.- 15. Mitral valve and transmitral flow.- 16. Aortic valve, Sinuses of Valsalva, and Aortic Artery.- 17. Vortex formation in the right heart .- 18. Circulatory areas in the developing hearth.- 19. Linking Cardiac Muscle Funtion to Vortex Formation.- 20. Effect of Left Ventricular Diseases on Vortex Formation.- References to Part III.- IV - Effect of Cardiac Devices and Surgery on Vortex Formation.- 21. Vortex Formation in Bioprostheses.- 22. Vortex Formation in Mechanical Heart Valves.- 23. Vortical flow in Ventricular Assist Devices
24. Vortex Formation due to Arterial Surgery and Anastomosis .-References to Part IV.- V - Diagnostic Vortex imaging.- 25. MRI.- 26. Echocardiography.- 27. In vitro Experiments.- 28. Numerical simulations.- References to Part V
Vortex Formation in the Cardiovascular System will recapitulate the current knowledge about the vortex formation in the cardiovascular system, from mechanics to cardiology. This can facilitate the interaction between basic scientists and clinicians on the topic of the circulatory system. The book begins with a synopsis of the fundamentals aspects of fluid mechanics to give the reader the essential background to address the proceeding chapters. Then the fundamental elements of vortex dynamics will be discussed, explaining the conditions for their formation and the rules governing their dynamics. The main equations are accompanied by mathematical models. Cardiovascular vortex formation is first analyzed in physiological, healthy conditions in the heart chambers and in the large arterial vessels. The analysis is initially presented with an intuitive appeal grounded on the physical phenomena and a focus on its clinical significance.In the proceeding chapters, the knowledge gained from either clinical or basic science literature will be discussed. The corresponding mathematical elements will finally be presented to ensure the adequate diligence.
The proceeding chapters ensue to the analysis of pathological conditions, when the reader may have developed the ability to recognize normal from abnormal vortex formation phenomenon. Pathological vortex formation represents vortices that develop at sites where normally laminar flow should exist, e.g. stenosis and aneurisms. This analysis naturally leads to the interaction of vortices due to the surgical procedures with respect to prediction of changes in vortex formation.
The existing techniques, from medical imaging to numerical simulations, to explore vortex flows in the cardiovascular systems will also be described. The presentations are accompanied by the mathematical definitions can that be understandable for reader without the advanced mathematical background, while
Mathematical definitions understandable for the reader without the advanced mathematical background, while an interested reader with more advanced knowledge in mathematics can be referred to references for further quantitative analyses
Valuable support for physicians in the evaluation of vortex influence on diagnosis and therapeutic choices
Attracts the theoretical interest and can address the physiological or clinical concerns