'1 Introduction.- 1.1 Historical View and Motivation for Hydraulic Systems.- 1.2 Aims and Focus of the Book.- 1.3 Outline of the Chapters.- 1.4 Background of the Work and Bibliographical Notes.- 2 General Description of Hydraulic Servo-systems.- 2.1 Basic Structure of Hydraulic Servo-systems.- 2.2 Description of the Components.- 2.2.1 Valves.- 2.2.2 Pumps and Actuators.- 2.2.3 Power Supplies.- 2.3 Classification of Hydraulic Servo-systems.- 2.4 Measurement and Control Devices.- 2.4.1 Control Loops.- 2.4.2 Sensors/Transducers.- 2.5 Application Examples.- 2.5.1 Hydraulically Actuated Manipulators.- 2.5.2 Hydraulic Automatic Gauge Control for Rolling Mills.- 3 Physical Fundamentals of Hydraulics.- 3.1 Physical Properties of Fluids.- 3.1.1 Viscosity and Related Quantities.- 3.1.2 Mass Density, Bulk Modulus and Related Quantities.- 3.1.3 Effective Bulk Modulus.- 3.1.4 Section Summary.- 3.2 General Equations of Fluid Motion.- 3.2.1 Continuity Equation and Pressure Transients.- 3.2.2 Navier-Stokes Equation.- 3.2.3 Bernoulli's Theorem.- 3.2.4 Section Summary.- 3.3 Flow Through Passages.- 3.3.1 Flow Establishment in Pipelines.- 3.3.2 Flow Through Orifices.- 3.3.3 Flow Through Valves.- 3.3.4 Section Summary.- 3.4 Spool Port Forces.- 3.5 Electro-hydraulic Analogy.- 3.5.1 Hydraulic Capacitance.- 3.5.2 Hydraulic Resistance.- 3.5.3 Hydraulic Inductance.- 4 Physically Based Modelling.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.1.1 Characterisation of Subsystems.- 4.1.2 Model Complexity and Applications.- 4.2 Elementary Models.- 4.2.1 Valves.- 4.2.2 Hydraulic Cylinders.- 4.2.3 Hydraulic Pumps and Motors.- 4.2.4 Power Supplies.- 4.2.5 Pipelines.- 4.3 Typical Non-linear State-space Models.- 4.4 Structured and Simplified Models of Valve-controlled Systems.- 4.4.1 Relevance of Valve and Pipeline Dynamics.- 4.4.2 Approximation of Pressure Dynamics.- 4.4.3 Introduction of Load Pressure.- 4.4.4 Linearised Models.- 4.5 Determination of Specific Model Parameters.- 4.5.1 Static Valve Characteristics.- 4.5.2 Dynamic Valve Characteristics.- 4.5.3 Actuator Dimensions and Mass.- 4.5.4 Friction Forces.- 4.5.5 Leakage Coefficients and Valve Underlap.- 4.6 Implementation and Software Tools.- 4.6.1 Simulation of Frietion Forces.- 4.6.2 Simulation of Mechanical Saturations.- 4.6.3 Simulation Packages.- 4.7 Section Summary.- 5 Experimental Modelling (Identification).- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.1.1 Generic Identification Procedure.- 5.1.2 Linear vs. Non-linear Identification.- 5.1.3 Online vs. Offline Identification.- 5.2 Pre-identification Process.- 5.2.1 Design of Input Signals.- 5.2.2 Pre-computations.- 5.3 Overview of Model Structures.- 5.3.1 Introductory Remarks and Definitions.- 5.3.2 Review of Linear Model Structures.- 5.3.3 Non-linear Input-output Models.- 5.3.4 Non-linear State-space Models.- 5.4 Description of Selected Non-linear Model Structures.- 5.4.1 Continuous-time Special (Canonical) Models.- 5.4.2 Fuzzy Models.- 5.4.3 Artificial Neural Networks.- 5.5 Parameter Estimation Methods.- 5.5.1 Prediction Error Methods.- 5.5.2 Classical Least-squares Analysis.- 5.5.3 Orthogonal Least-squares Estimator.- 5.5.4 Maximum Likelihood Method.- 5.5.5 Bias/Nariance Dilemma and Regularisation Concepts.- 5.6 Optimisation Algorithms.- 5.6.1 Newton's Method.- 5.6.2 Damped Gauss-Newton Method.- 5.6.3 Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithrn.- 5.6.4 Computational Aspects.- 5.7 Grey-box Identification ofNon-linear Hydraulic Servo-system Models.- 5.7.1 Identification of Pressure Dynamics Model.- 5.7.2 Identification of Load Dynamics Model.- 5.7.3 Online Identification for Adaptive Control.- 5.7.4 Identification of General Models.- 5.8 Fuzzy Identification.- 5.8.1 Introduction and Model Parameter Overview.- 5.8.2 Structure Identification.- 5.8.3 Parameter Identification (Premise).- 5.8.4 Parameter Identification (Conclusion).- 5.8.5 Optimisation.- 5.9 Identification with Artificial Neural Networks.- 5.9.1 Sele
Über den Autor
Mohieddine Jelali received the Dipl.-Ing. and Dr.-Ing. degrees from the University of Duisberg, Germany in 1993 and 1997 respectively, both in mechanical engineering. From 1993 to 1996, he was research assistant with the Department of Measurement and Control.
From 1996 to 1999, he worked as a research-and-development engineer with Mannesmann Demag Metallurgy in Ratingen, BU Cold Rolling and Processing. In September 1999, he joined the Betriebsforchungsinstitut - VDEh-Institut für angewandte Forschung GmbH in Düsseldorf as a project manager and co-ordinator of multinational research projects in the steel industry. His main fields of interest include: modelling, dynamic simulation, development of advanced controls and control prototyping for rolling mills and supervisory control of steel processes.
Since October he has been a lecturer in control systems at the University of Duisberg. He has written/co-written 14 research publications.
Andreas Kroll obtained his Dr.-Ing. in mechanical engineering at the University of Duisberg in 1996. From 1993 to 1996, he was also a research assistant with the Department of Measurement and Control.
In 1996 Doctor Kroll joined the ABB Research Centre in Heidelberg as a research-and-development engineer. Since 1998, he has been International R&D manager and since 2000, the group leader for Applied Control and Optimisation. His current research interests include: methods of computational intelligence, advanced process control and applications, dynamic simulation and optimisation of processes, international project management and personal and technological strategies of the line unit.
He has written or co-written 16 publications.
This up-to-date book details the basic concepts of many recent developments of nonlinear identification and nonlinear control, and their application to hydraulic servo-systems. It is very application-oriented and provides the reader with detailed working procedures and hints for implementation routines and software tools.
Large numbers of industrial processes and products use hydraulic servo-systems from steel rolling to the lowering of aircraft undercarriages and car braking systems. The widespread application of such systems means that the book should sell to engineers from many industrial backgrounds.