List of Contributors xiiirnForeword xxinG. Riba. Vice-Chairman of INRArnPart 1: Introduction 1rn1 Introduction to the GM and Non-GM Supply Chain Co-Existence and Traceability 3nY. Bertheau, J. DavisonrnReferences 12rnPart 2: Managing Gene Flow 21rn2 Contributions of Pollen and Seed to Impurity in Crops - A Comparison of Maize, Oilseed Rape and Beet 23nG.R. Squire, J. Lecomte, A. Hüsken, J. Soukup, A. MesséanrnReferences 32rn3 Co-Existence Issues of GM Sugar Beet 35nH. DarmencyrnReferences 46rn4 Ex Ante Evaluation of Gene Flow in Oilseed Rape with Cropping System Models 49nN. ColbachrnReferences 59rn5 Biological Containment Strategies for Transgenic Crops 61nR.A. de Maagd, K. BoutilierrnReferences 73rn6 Long-Distance Pollen Flow in Large Fragmented Landscapes 79nY. Brunet, S. Dupont, S. Delage, D. Garrigou, D. Guyon, S. Dayau, P. Tulet, J.-P. Pinty, C. Lac, J. Escobar, A. Audran, X. FoueillassarrnReferences 87rn7 Current and Future Availability of Non-Genetically Modifi ed Soybean Seeds in the USA, Brazil and Argentina 89nJ. MilanesirnReferences 110rnPart 3: Co-Existence in Food and Feed Supply Chains 113rn8 Consumers' Opinions and Attitudes Towards Co-existence of GM and Non-GM Food Products 115nM. Costa-Font, R.B. Tranter, J.M. GilrnReferences 124rn9 Evaluation of Collection Strategies for Landscape and Product Flow Management 127nF.C. Coléno, F. AngevinrnReferences 138rn10 Empirical Analysis of Co-Existence in Commodity Supply Chains 141nN. Gryson, M. Eeckhout, A. Messéan, L-G. Soler, B. Lécroart, A. Trouillier, M. Le Bail, J. Bez, R. Bourgier, J. Copeland, M. Gylling, M. Maciejczak, V. Megliè, K. Menrad, A. Gabriel, M. Stolze, C. Tapia, G. Ghezan, V. Pelaez, R. Rocha dos SantosrnReferences 157rn11 Modelling and Assessing the Impacts of the Co-Existence Between GM and non-GM Supply Chains: The Starch Maize Supply Chain Example 161nB. Lecroart, A. Messéan, L-G. SolerrnReferences 173rn12 Costs of Segregation and Traceability Between GM and Non-GM Supply Chains of Single Crop and Compound Food/Feed Products 177nK. Menrad, A. Gabriel, J. Bez, M. Gylling, A. Larsen, M. Maciejczak, M. Stolze, N. Gryson, M. Eeckhout, N. Pensel, R. Rocha dos Santos, A. MesséanrnReferences 191rn13 Labelling and Co-Existence Regulation of GMOs and Non-GMOs: An Economic Perspective 193nM. Desquilbet, S. PoretrnAppendix 210rnReferences 211rn14 Co-Existence and Traceability in Supply Chains: A Case Study on Belgian Compound Feed 215nN. Gryson, M. EeckhoutrnReferences 237rnPart 4: Traceability and Controls in Food and Feed Supply Chains 243rn15 GMO Sampling Strategies in Food and Feed Chains 245nR. Onori, J. Sustar-Vozliè, G. Bellocchi, G. Berben, A. Blejec, C. Brera, Z. Èergan (Deceased), M. Debeljak, M. De Giacomo, M. De Vivo, T. Esteve, E. Janssen, P. Kozjak, F. Leprince, R. Macarthur, A. Malcevschi, N. Marmiroli, V. Megliè, E. Melé, J. Messeguer, M. Miraglia, A. Nadal, R. Oger, E. Palmaccio, M. Pla, V. Planchon, E. Prantera, K. Rostohar, B. VrsèajrnReferences 269rn16 Harmonised Reference Genes and PCR Assays for GMO Quantification 273nI. Taverniers, N. Papazova, T. Allnutt, S. Baumler, Y. Bertheau, T. Esteve, R. Freyer, K. Gruden, B. Kuznetzov, J. Luis La Paz, A. Nadal, M. Pla, J. Vojvoda, D. Wulff, D. Zhang2rnReferences 290rn17 The Modular Approach in GMO Quality Control and Enforcement Support Systems 293nM. Van den Bulcke, G. Bellocchi, G. Berben, M. Burns, K. Cankar, M. De Giacomo, K. Gruden, A. Holst-Jensen, A. Malcewsky, M. Mazzara, R. Onori, N. Papazova, E. Parlouer, I. Taverniers, S. Trapmann, D. Wulff, D. Zhang2rnReferences 305rn18 Reliability and Cost of GMO Detection 307nK. Gruden, T.R. Allnutt, M. Ayadi, S. Baeumler, C. Bahrdt, G. Berben, K.G. Berdal, Y. Bertheau, C. Bøydler Andersen, P. Brodmann, M. Buh Gaspariè, M.J. Burns, A.M. Burrel, K. Cankar, T. Esteve, A. Holst-Jensen, A.B. Kristoffersen, J. La Paz, D. Lee, A. Løvseth, R. Macarthur, D. Morisset, M. Pla, R.B. Rud, C. Skjæret, T. Tengs, H. Valdivia, D. Wulff, D. Zhang2, J. ?elrnReferences 329rn19 New Multiplexing Tools for Reliable GMO Detection 333nM. Pla, A. Nadal, V. Baeten, C. Bahrdt, G. Berben, Y. Bertheau, A. Coll, J.P. van Dijk, D. Dobnik., J.A. Fernandez Pierna, K. Gruden, S. Hamels, A. Holck, A. Holst-Jensen, E. Janssen, E.J. Kok, J.L. La Paz, V. Laval, S. Leimanis, A. Malcevschi, N. Marmiroli, D. Morisset, T.W. Prins, J. Remacle, G. Ujhelyi, D. WulffrnReferences 362rn20 Towards Detection of Unknown GMOs 367nA. Holst-Jensen, K.G. Berdal, Y. Bertheau, M. Bohanec, J. Bohlin, M. Chaouachi, K. Gruden, S. Hamels, E.J. Kok, A. Krech, A.B. Kristoffersen, V. Laval, S. Leimanis, M. Løvoll, D. Morisset, A. Nemeth, N. Papazova, T.W. Prins, J. Remacle, P. Richl, T. Ruttink, I. Taverniers, T. Tengs, J.P. van Dijk, D. Wulff, J. ?el, H. Zhang, M. ?nidarsièrnReferences 380rn21 Method Validation and Reference Materials 383nG. Bellocchi, Y. Bertheau, M. De Giacomo, A. Holst-Jensen, R. Macarthur, M. Mazzara, R. Onori, I. Taverniers, M. van den Bulcke, S. TrapmannrnReferences 398rnPart 5: Legal Regimes, Liability and Redress Issues 403rn22 Liability and Redress Options for Damage Caused by GMOs 405nB.A. KochrnReferences 413rn23 Legal Issues, an Overview on Co-Existence Policies: Technological Pluralism, Confidence Economy, Transnational Supply Chains 415rnReferences 430rn24 The Judge's Role Concerning Science in Precautionary Measures: A Shift from Guide to Arbitrator 433nC. NoivillernReferences 454rnPart 6: Data Integration and DSS 459rn25 The Co-Extra Decision Support System: A Model-Based Integration of Project Results 461nM. Bohanec, Y. Bertheau, C. Brera, K. Gruden, A. Holst-Jensen, E.J. Kok, B. Lécroart, A. Messéan, M. Miraglia, R. Onori, T.W. Prins, L-G. Soler, M. ?nidarsièrnReferences 488rnPart 7: Related Issues 491rn26 Integration of Co-Extra Results in EU Tools for Traceability 493nG. van den Eede, D. PlanrnReferences 518rn27 Labelling and Detection of GM Crops and Derived Products: Regulatory Frameworks and Research Issues in East Asia 521nD. Zhang1, L. Yang, C.-H. Lee, S-H. Lee, B.-J. Kuo, K. Kitta, M. TachikawarnReferences 539rn28 Maintaining a Supply of Non-GM Feed - A Strategic Issue for European Regional Agriculture 543nR. LayadirnReferences 555rn29 A Geographical Approach to the European Policy for the Co-Existence of GMO and Non-GMO Crops 563nE. GlonrnReferences 587rn30 Segregating Supply Chains: a Cost-Benefit Perspective 591nJ.K. Hammitt, W.W. WilsonrnReferences 603rn31 Co-Existence and Traceability in the EU Versus IP Systems in Third Countries 605nR. Rocha dos Santos, N. Pensel, R. GreenrnReferences 615rnPart 8: Conclusion 617rn32 GM and Non-GM Supply Chain Co-Existence and Traceability: Context and Perspectives 619nY. BertheaurnReferences 630rnIndex 643rnA colour plate section falls between pages 314 and 315
In the European Union nations, and other countries including Japan, Australia and Malaysia, it is a legal requirement that food products containing genetically modified organism (GMO) materials are labelled as such in order that customers may make informed purchasing decisions. For manufacturers and consumers to be confident about these assertions, systems must be in place along the entire food chain which support the co-existence of GM and non GM materials whilst maintaining a strict segregation between the two.rnThis book is an output of a European Union-funded project entitled "Co-Extra: GM and non-GM food and feed supply chains: their Co-Existence and Traceability". The objective of this four year project is to provide practical tools and methods for implementing co-existence that will:n* enable the co-existence of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM cropsn* enable the segregation and tracing of genetically modified organism (GMO) materials and derived products along the food and feed chainsn* anticipate the future expansion of the use of GMOsrnThe project is designed to foster a robustly science-based debate amongst all of the stakeholders involved in the food and feed chains, and the tools will be assessed not only from a technical point of view but with regard to the economic and legal aspects. It also surveys the GMO-related legal regimes and practices that exist in and beyond the EU.rnThis book examines the practical tools and methods available to implement the co-existence and traceability of GM and non-GM food materials along the entire food and feed chains, as demanded by consumers and by legislation in force in the EU and elsewhere. GM and Non-GM Supply Foods is a source of valuable information for food manufacturers, food research institutions and regulatory bodies internationally.