Über den Autor
Wolf Hamm (retired) has been a consultant to the Oils and Fats Industry, and is based in Harpenden, UK.rnRichard J. Hamilton is Emeritus Professor at Liverpool John Moores University, UK.rnGijs Calliauw is Development Manager Modification at Desmet Ballestra, Belgium.
List of Contributors xiiirnList of Abbreviations xvrnIntroduction xviirn1 Composition and Properties of Edible Oils 1rnFrank D. Gunstonern1.1 Introduction 1rn1.2 Components of natural fats 3rn1.3 Fatty acid composition 16rn1.4 Physical properties 19rn1.5 Chemical properties 25rn1.6 Effect of processing on food oil components 33rnReferences 34rn2 Bulk Movement of Edible Oils 41rnWolf Hammrn2.1 Oil production and exports 41rn2.2 Cargo damage 45rn2.3 Quality of oils shipped 47rn2.4 Codex Alimentarius 48rn2.5 Oil shipments: systems and regulations 49rn2.6 Shore storage 52rn2.7 Movement and storage costs 53rn2.8 Refinery location 53rnAcknowledgement 53rnReferences 54rn3 Production of Oils 55rnPhilippe van Doosselaerern3.1 Introduction 55rn3.2 Seed handling and storage 56rn3.3 Preparation of oilseeds 60rn3.4 Preparation of soybean 61rn3.5 Preparation and pressing of rapeseed (canola) 69rn3.6 Preparation and pressing of sunflower seed 77rn3.7 Full pressing 78rn3.8 Oil from other seeds 81rn3.9 Olive oil production 87rn3.10 Palm oil production 91rn4 Solvent Extraction 97rnTimothy G. Kemperrn4.1 Introduction 97rn4.2 Solvent extractor 99rn4.3 Meal desolventiser toaster 107rn4.4 Meal dryer cooler 114rn4.5 Miscella distillation system 117rn4.6 Solvent recovery system 119rn4.7 Heat recovery 123rnReferences 125rn5 Edible Oil Refining: Current and Future Technologies 127rnWim De Greytrn5.1 Introduction 127rn5.2 Next-generation chemical refining with nanoneutralisation 128rn5.3 Enzymatic degumming: a missing link in the physical refining of soft oils? 131rn5.4 Bleaching: from single-stage colour removal to multistage adsorptivernpurification 136rn5.5 Deodorisation: much more than just a process for the removal of off-flavours 141rn5.6 Short-path distillation and supercritical processing: refining technologies forrnthe future? 148rnReferences 150rn6 Oil Modification Processes 153rnMarc Kellens and Gijs Calliauwrn6.1 Introduction 153rn6.2 Hydrogenation 154rn6.3 Interesterification 166rn6.4 Dry fractionation 175rnproduction 191rnReferences 195rn7 Enzyme Processing 197rnDavid Cowanrn7.1 Introduction 197rn7.2 Enzyme applications before oil refining 199rn7.3 Applications within edible oil modification 208rn7.4 Improving processing sustainability through enzyme usage 219rnReferences 221rn8 Application of Edible Oils 223rnArjen Bot and Eckhard Fl¿oterrn8.1 Introduction 223rn8.2 Physical chemistry of triacylglycerides 225rn8.3 Fat crystal networks 228rn8.4 Design of functional TAG compositions 229rn8.5 Application in fat-continuous emulsions (spreads) 234rn8.6 Application in water-continuous emulsions 237rn8.7 Application in other fat-continuous products 241rn8.8 Conclusion 245rnReferences 246rn9 Quality and Food Safety Assurance and Control 251rnMar Verhoeff and Gerrit van Duijnrn9.1 Introduction 251rn9.2 Analytical methods for measuring oil and fat composition 252rn9.3 Quality analyses 252rn9.4 Supply chain contaminants 257rn9.5 Quality and food safety assurance 261rnReferences 266rn10 Oil Processing Design Basics 267rnGerrit van Duijn and Gerrit den Dekkerrn10.1 Introduction 267rn10.2 Refining and modification process routes for most common oil types 268rn10.3 Oil processing block diagram design 274rn10.4 Effective equipment capacity 283rnoperations 285rn10.5 Tank park design rules 285rn10.6 Design estimates for utilities consumptions and effluent production 291rn10.7 Occupational safety by design 301rnReferences 310rnFurther Reading 311rnIndex 313
Oils and fats are almost ubiquitous in food processing, whether naturally occurring in foods or added as ingredients that bring functional benefits. Whilst levels of fat intake must be controlled in order to avoid obesity and other health problems, it remains the fact that fats (along with proteins and carbohydrates) are one of the three macronutrients and therefore an essential part of a healthy diet.rnThe ability to process oils and fats to make them acceptable as part of our food supplies is a key component in our overall knowledge of them. Without this ability, the food that we consume would be totally different, and much of the flexibility available to us as a result of the application of processing techniques would be lost. Obviously we need to know how to process fatty oils, but we also need to know how best to use them once they have been processed.rnThis second edition of Edible Oil Processing presents a valuable overview of the technology and applications behind the subject.nIt covers the latest technologies which address new environmental and nutritional requirements as well as the current state of world edible oil markets.rnThis book is intended for food scientists and technologists who use oils and fats in food formulations, as well as chemists and technologists working in edible oils and fats processing.