Über den Autor
Professor Colm O'Donnell, School of Biosystems Engineering, University College Dublin, Ireland.rnDr B.K. Tiwari, Department of Food and Tourism, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK.rnDr P.J. Cullen, School of Food Science and Environmental Health, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland.rnDr Rip G. Rice, RICE International Consulting Enterprises, Sandy Spring, Maryland, USA.
Contributors xirn1 Status and Trends of Ozone in Food Processing 1nColm O'Donnell, B.K. Tiwari, P.J. Cullen and Rip G. Ricern1.1 Why ozone? 1rn1.2 Drivers of ozone in the food industry 1rn1.2.1 Regulation 1rn1.2.2 Surface cleaning and disinfection 2rn1.2.3 Food safety and shelf life extension 2rn1.2.4 Nutrient and sensory aspects 3rn1.2.5 Consumer and processor acceptability 3rn1.2.6 Technology advances 3rn1.2.7 Environmental impact 4rn1.3 The hurdle concept 4rn1.4 Challenges 5rn1.5 Objective 5rnReferences 5rn2 Regulatory and Legislative Issues 7nB.K. Tiwari and Rip G. Ricern2.1 Introduction 7rn2.2 History of ozone application and regulation 9rn2.3 Ozone regulation 9rn2.3.1 Overview of US regulations 9rn2.3.2 Overview of European regulations 11rn2.3.3 Overview of Canadian regulations 13rn2.3.4 Overview of Australian and New Zealand regulations 15rn2.3.5 Overview of Japanese regulations 15rn2.4 Global harmonisation of food safety regulations 16rnReferences 16rn3 Chemical and Physical Properties of Ozone 19nAnnel K. Greene, Zeynep B. Güzel-Seydim and At1f Can Seydimrn3.1 Introduction 19rn3.2 The molecular structure of ozone 19rn3.3 The chemical and physical properties of ozone 20rn3.3.1 The chemical mechanisms of ozonation 22rn3.3.2 Ozone reaction pathways in water 22rn3.4 Ozone action on macromolecules 25rn3.5 Mechanisms of microbial inactivation 26rn3.6 Ozone reactions against virus 28rn3.7 Ozone reaction on biofilms 29rnAcknowledgments 29rnReferences 29rn4 Generation and Control of Ozone 33nCameron Tapp and Rip G. Ricern4.1 Introduction 33rn4.2 Ozone generation 33rn4.2.1 Ozone generation by corona discharge (CD) 34rn4.2.2 Ultraviolet (UV) (photochemical) ozone generation 36rn4.3 Feed gas preparation systems 36rn4.3.1 Need for feed gas treatment 36rn4.3.2 Air preparation systems 37rn4.3.3 Oxygen feed gas systems 39rn4.4 Solubility of ozone in water 41rn4.5 Contacting ozone with water: physical means of transferring ozone into water 44rn4.5.1 Venturi injection method 44rn4.5.2 Fine bubble diffuser method 46rn4.6 Measuring and monitoring ozone in water 46rn4.6.1 Colourimetric method 47rn4.6.2 Electronic method - for dissolved ozone 47rn4.6.3 Electronic method - for ORP 48rn4.7 Measuring and monitoring ozone in air 48rn4.7.1 Ozone measurement equipment for food processing plant air 49rn4.8 Ozonation equipment for food storage rooms 50rn4.9 Ozone generator output control 50rn4.10 Some recent novel applications for ozone generation in food processing plants 51rn4.11 Helpful calculations 53rn4.11.1 Gallons per minute 53rn4.11.2 Metric equivalent 53rnReferences 53rn5 Ozone in Fruit and Vegetable Processing 55nB.K. Tiwari and K. Muthukumarappanrn5.1 Introduction 55rn5.2 Applications in fruit and vegetable processing 56rn5.2.1 Surface decontamination 56rn5.2.2 Storage in ozone-rich atmospheres 61rn5.2.3 Ozone in fruit and vegetable juice processing 65rn5.3 Efficacy of ozone 65rn5.4 Synergistic effects with ozone 68rn5.5 Effect of ozone on product quality and nutrition 69rn5.5.1 Chemical attributes 69rn5.5.2 Visual quality 70rn5.5.3 Texture 72rn5.5.4 Sensory quality 73rn5.6 Conclusion 74rnReferences 74rn6 Ozone in Grain Processing 81nV. Lullien-Pellerinrn6.1 Introduction 81rn6.2 Ozone application in grain storage and effects on grain components 82rn6.2.1 Insect control 82rn6.2.2 Microorganism control 84rn6.2.3 Reduction of toxic chemical levels 86rn6.2.4 Effects of ozone on grain components, metabolism and physiological status 88rn6.3 Effects of ozone on grain processing, flour and product quality 90rn6.4 Industrial applications and scale-up 93rn6.5 Conclusions 95rnAcknowledgments 96rnReferences 96rn7 Ozonation of Hydrocolloids 103nJoan M. King, Hee-Jung An, Seung-wook Seo and Alfredo Prudentern7.1 Introduction 103rn7.2 Application of ozone in hydrocolloid processing 104rn7.2.1 Starch 104rn7.2.2 Chitosan 105rn7.2.3 Gelatin 107rn7.2.4 Other hydrocolloids 108rn7.3 Effects of ozone on the physiochemical properties of hydrocolloids 108rn7.3.1 Structural composition 108rn7.3.2 Swelling power 109rn7.3.3 Molecular weight 110rn7.3.4 Viscosity 111rn7.3.5 Thermal properties 115rn7.4 Mechanism and structural effects of ozone action on hydrocolloids 115rnReferences 118rn8 Ozone in Meat Processing 123nFred W. Pohlmanrn8.1 Introduction 123rn8.2 Application of ozone in meat processing 125rn8.2.1 Surface decontamination of red meat 125rn8.2.2 Surface decontamination of poultry 128rn8.2.3 Other meat applications 129rn8.3 Effect on meat quality 130rnReferences 133rn9 Ozone in Seafood Processing 137nShigezou Naitorn9.1 Introduction 137rn9.2 Application of ozone in fish and storage of processed seafood products 138rn9.2.1 Fresh fish and seafood 138rn9.2.2 Dried and smoked products 145rn9.3 Application of ozone in seafood plant sanitation 149rn9.4 Effects of ozone on microbial safety 153rn9.5 Effects of ozone on fish and seafood quality and shelf life 155rn9.6 Current status and future trends for ozone and seafood 157rnReferences 160rn10 Ozone Sanitisation in the Food Industry 163nP.J. Cullen and Tomás Nortonrn10.1 Introduction 163rn10.2 Ozone as a sanitising agent 165rn10.3 Health and safety issues 168rn10.4 Using ozone in industrial cleaning procedures 168rn10.5 Ozone applications in food processing 170rn10.5.1 Dairy industry 170rn10.5.2 Wine industry 172rn10.5.3 Brewing industry 173rnReferences 174rn11 Ozone for Water Treatment and its Potential for Process Water Reuse in the Food Industry 177nTomás Norton and Paula MisiewiczrnNomenclature 177rn11.1 Introduction 177rn11.2 Water in the food industry 179rn11.2.1 Fresh produce processing 180rn11.2.2 Dairy processing 181rn11.2.3 Meat and poultry processing 185rn11.3 Ozonation as a water treatment process 185rn11.4 The kinetics of ozonation 187rn11.4.1 The kinetics of mass transfer 188rn11.4.2 Determining the chemical reaction kinetics 189rn11.4.3 Hydrodynamics 191rn11.4.4 Applications of hydrodynamic modelling to investigate ozone water treatment 193rn11.5 Conclusion 195rnReferences 195rn12 Ozone for Food Waste and Odour Treatment 201nIoannis S. Arvanitoyannisrn12.1 Introduction 201rn12.2 Application of ozonation to waste treatment 205rn12.2.1 Wastewater of plant origin 205rn12.2.2 Wastewater of animal origin 209rn12.3 Application of ozonation to odour removal 211rn12.3.1 Odours originating from food industry processes 213rn12.3.2 Odours originating from agricultural operations 213rn12.4 Conclusions 216rnReferences 216rn13 Efficacy of Ozone on Pesticide Residues 223nGilbert Y.S. Chan and J.G. Wurn13.1 Introduction 223rn13.2 Types of pesticides 225rn13.3 Fates of pesticides 225rn13.3.1 Degradation processes of pesticides 225rn13.3.2 Ozonation of pesticides 227rn13.4 Degradation mechanisms 227rn13.4.1 Kinetics 227rn13.4.2 Intermediates and oxidation products 229rn13.5 Ozone application for pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables 231rn13.6 Current status and opportunities 234rn13.6.1 Ozone concentrations 234rn13.6.2 Physical nature of plants affects degradation efficacy 235rn13.6.3 Future trends 235rnReferences 236rn14 Modelling Approaches for Ozone Processing 241nVasilis P. Valdramidis, P.J. Cullen and B.K. TiwarirnNomenclature 241rn14.1 Introduction 242rn14.2 Modelling approaches for microbial inactivation 242rn14.3 Chemical reaction kinetics 250rn14.4 Modelling ozonation processes 255rn14.4.1 Modelling ozone bubble columns 255rn14.4.2 Overall mass transfer coefficient 257rn14.5 Conclusions 259rnReferences 259rn15 Health and Safety Aspects of Ozone Processing 265nRip G. Ricern15.1 Introduction 265rn15.2 Points of application of ozone during food processing 266rn15.2.1 Aqueous phase ozone applications 266rn15.2.2 Gas phase ozone applications 267rn15.3 Health and safety issues with ozone for food plant workers 267rn15.3.1 Ozone exposure regulations 267rn15.3.2 Potential fire hazards from high-purity oxygen use 271rn15.3.3 Safety history of ozone in commercial/industrial applications 272rn15.4 Avoiding worker exposure to ozone in food processing plants 273rn15.4.1 General considerations 273rn15.4.2 Specific plant safety measures 274rn15.4.3 Controlling off-gas ozone at Fresher Than Fresh fish processing/packaging plant 275rn15.4.4 Third-party evaluation of aqueous ozone spray wash equipment 277rn15.5 Safety of foods processed with ozone 280rn15.5.1 Nutrient impacts of ozone contact with foods 280rn15.5.2 Impacts of ozone processing of foods on vitamin contents 281rn15.5.3 Impacts of ozone processing of foods on protein contents 282rn15.5.4 Impacts of ozone processing of foods on lipid contents 283rn15.5.5 Toxicology aspects of ozone processing of foods 283rn15.6 Conclusions 285rnAcknowledgments 286rnReferences 286rnIndex 289rnA colour plate section falls between pages 180 and 181
This book is the first to bring together essential information on the application of ozone in food processing, providing an insight into the current state-of-the-art and reviewing established and emerging applications in food processing, preservation and waste management.rnThe chemical and physical properties of ozone are described, along with its microbial inactivation mechanisms. The various methods of ozone production are compared, including their economic and technical aspects. Several chapters are dedicated to the major food processing applications: fruit and vegetables, grains, meat, seafood and food hydrocolloids, and the effects on nutritional and quality parameters will be reviewed throughout. Further chapters examine the role of ozone in water treatment, in food waste treatment and in deactivating pesticide residues. The international regulatory and legislative picture is addressed, as are the health and safety implications of ozone processing and possible future trends.