Über den Autor
Alan Crozier is Professor of Plant Biochemistry and Human Nutrition at the University of Glasgow, UK.rnHiroshi Ashihara is Professor of Plant Biochemistry at Ochanomizu University, Tokyo, Japan.rnFrancisco Tomás-Barbéran is Research Professor of the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) in the CEBAS Institute, Murcia, Spain.
Contributors ixrn1 The Origins of Tea, Coffee and Cocoa as Beverages 1nTimothy J. Bondrn1.1 Introduction 1rn1.2 The beverages in question 1rn1.3 Discoveries - myth and legend 2rn1.3.1 Tea 3rn1.3.2 Coffee 4rn1.3.3 Cacao products 5rn1.4 Global domination begins 8rn1.4.1 Tea - overland and a race by sea 9rn1.4.2 Coffee - from persecution to epitomising the protestant work ethic 13rn1.4.3 Chocolate - from lying down . . . to sitting up 14rn1.5 From foreign fancies to the drinks of the masses 15rn1.6 Tea, coffee and chocolate 'go public' 18rn1.7 Opinion is divided on the merits of the three beverages 19rn1.8 Tea, coffee and chocolate - the future 22rnReferences 22rn2 Purine Alkaloids: A Focus on Caffeine and Related Compounds in Beverages 25nMichael E.J. Lean, Hiroshi Ashihara, Michael N. Clifford and Alan Crozierrn2.1 Introduction 25rn2.2 Occurrence of purine alkaloids 26rn2.3 Biosynthesis of purine alkaloids 27rn2.4 Degradation of purine alkaloids 27rn2.5 Decaffeinated tea and coffee 29rn2.6 Metabolism of caffeine by humans 31rn2.7 Effects of caffeine consumption on human health 33rn2.7.1 Biochemical and biological actions of caffeine 34rn2.7.2 Mental performance enhancement 37rn2.7.3 Physical performance enhancement 37rn2.7.4 Caffeine toxicity 38rn2.7.5 Tolerance, withdrawal and dependence 39rn2.7.6 Caffeine in pregnancy 39rn2.7.7 Toxicity in other species 40rn2.8 Summary 40rnReferences 40rn3 Phytochemicals in Teas and Tisanes and Their Bioavailability 45nMichael N. Clifford and Alan Crozierrn3.1 Introduction 45rn3.2 Phytochemical content of teas and tisanes 45rn3.2.1 Camellia teas 45rn3.2.2 Yerba mat¿e tea 54rn3.2.3 Itadori tea 58rn3.2.4 Rooibos tea 59rn3.2.5 Honeybush tea 59rn3.2.6 Chamomile tea 62rn3.2.7 Hibiscus tea 62rn3.2.8 Fennel tea 63rn3.2.9 Anastatica tea 63rn3.2.10 Ficus tea 66rn3.3 Bioavailability - absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion 66rn3.3.1 Green tea 68rn3.3.2 Black tea 77rn3.3.3 Itadori tea 80rn3.3.4 Rooibos tea 81rn3.3.5 Honeybush tea 84rn3.3.6 Hibiscus tea 85rn3.3.7 Fennel tea 85rn3.3.8 Other teas 87rn3.4 Summary 87rnReferences 88rn4 Teas, Tisanes and Health 99nDiane L. McKay, Marshall G. Miller and Jeffrey B. Blumbergrn4.1 Introduction 99rn4.2 Black, oolong and green tea (C. sinensis) 100rn4.2.1 Black tea 100rn4.2.2 Oolong tea 107rn4.2.3 Green tea 109rn4.3 Other teas and tisanes 116rn4.3.1 Yerba mat¿e (Ilex paraguariensis) 116rn4.3.2 Itadori (Polygonum cuspidatum) 118rn4.3.3 Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.) 119rn4.3.4 Hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) 120rn4.3.5 Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) 126rn4.3.6 Honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) 128rn4.4 Summary and conclusions 130rnReferences 131rn5 Phytochemicals in Coffee and the Bioavailability of Chlorogenic Acids 143nAngelique Stalmach, Michael N. Clifford, Gary Williamson and Alan Crozierrn5.1 Introduction 143rn5.2 Harvesting coffee beans, roasting and blending 144rn5.3 Phytochemicals in coffee 144rn5.3.1 Effects of roasting on the phytochemical content of coffee beans 149rn5.3.2 Chlorogenic acid intake and coffee consumption 154rn5.4 Bioavailability of coffee chlorogenic acids in humans 155rn5.4.1 Studies involving volunteers with and without a functioning colon 156rn5.5 Conclusions 164rnReferences 164rn6 Coffee and Health 169nGary Williamsonrn6.1 Introduction 169rn6.2 Antioxidant status 170rn6.2.1 Effect of coffee consumption on antioxidant status: epidemiological and cohort studies 179rn6.2.2 Effect of coffee consumption on antioxidant status: intervention studies 179rn6.3 Diabetes 180rn6.3.1 Effect of coffee consumption on diabetes risk: epidemiological and cohort studies 180rn6.3.2 Effect of coffee consumption on diabetes risk: intervention studies 182rn6.4 Cardiovascular disease 183rn6.4.1 Effect of coffee consumption on cardiovascular risk: epidemiological and cohort studies 183rn6.4.2 Effect of coffee consumption on cardiovascular risk: intervention studies 184rn6.5 Effect of coffee on inflammation 186rn6.6 Effect of coffee consumption on cancer risk 186rn6.6.1 Effect of coffee consumption on cancer risk: epidemiological and cohort studies 186rn6.6.2 Effect of coffee consumption on cancer risk: intervention studies 188rn6.7 Summary 188rnReferences 188rn7 Phytochemicals in Cocoa and Flavan-3-ol Bioavailability 193nFrancisco Tomas-Barberan, Gina Borges and Alan Crozierrn7.1 Introduction 193rn7.2 Phytochemicals in cocoa 194rn7.2.1 Purine alkaloids, theobromine and caffeine 194rn7.2.2 Flavan-3-ols 194rn7.2.3 Phenolic acid derivatives 196rn7.2.4 Minor phytochemicals 197rn7.3 Bioavailability of cocoa flavan-3-ols 198rn7.3.1 Background 198rn7.3.2 Flavan-3-ol monomers 200rn7.3.3 Procyanidins 210rn7.4 Conclusions 212rnReferences 213rn8 Cocoa and Health 219nJennifer L. Donovan, Kelly A. Holes-Lewis, Kenneth D. Chavin and Brent M. Eganrn8.1 Introduction 219rn8.2 Composition of cocoa products 220rn8.3 Worldwide consumption of cocoa and its contribution to flavonoid intake 222rn8.4 Epidemiological and ecological studies of cocoa 222rn8.5 Cocoa effects on vascular endothelial function and platelet activity 224rn8.6 Cocoa and hypertension 227rn8.7 Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa 229rn8.8 Effects of cocoa consumption on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism 232rn8.9 Cocoa effects on insulin sensitivity 233rn8.10 Cocoa effects on cerebral blood flow and neurocognitive functioning 234rn8.11 Potential negative health effects of cocoa consumption 237rn8.11.1 Obesity 237rn8.11.2 Testicular health 237rn8.11.3 Acne 238rn8.11.4 Dental caries 238rn8.12 Effects of consumption of cocoa with milk or other foods 238rn8.13 Conclusions 239rnReferences 240rnIndex 247rnA color plate section falls between pages 6 and 7
In recent years, the role of plant secondary metabolites as protective constituents in the human diet has been a growing area of research. Unlike the traditional vitamins, they are not essential for short-term wellbeing, but there is increasing evidence that modest long-term intakes can have favourable impacts on the incidence of cancers and many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes, which are occurring in Western populations with increasing frequency.rnThis book covers the latest science on the metabolism and potential health benefits of teas, cocoa, coffee and their extracts in the human diet. From an opening chapter tracing the origins of teas, cocoa and coffee as beverage, the book proceeds to explore the phytochemical content of coffee, cocoa and the various types of tea. The bioavailability of secondary metabolites from each of the beverages is then considered in depth, and related directly to their health benefits. Embracing the full range of tea, coffee and cocoa beverages and products, the book offers the most up-to-date and comprehensive treatment of these increasingly important dietary components.rnAs the only book to bring together the latest information on the biochemistry and health benefits of teas, coffee and cocoa, this book is essential reading for food scientists and technologists involved in the production of tea, coffee and cocoa products. Nutritionists will value the book's health focus, while agricultural scientists working on the cultivation of these crops will prize its scope and depth of detail. It is also an important resource for all those who use functional ingredients in other products, whether they are based in industry or research.