PREFACE THE present book aims to consider the virtues and failings of helmets and body armor in modern warfare. To this end it brings together materials collected from all accessibl sources it shows the kinds of armor which each nation has been using in the Great IVXT, what pratical tests they will resist, of what materials they are made, ,and what they have done in saving life and limb. As an intraduction to these headings there has now been added a section which deals with ancient armor this enables us to contrast the old with the new and to indicate, in clearer perspective, what degree of success the latest armor may achieve in its special field. The results of our inquiry will show 1. That the helmet has been adopted as part of the regular military equipment of many nations. 2 That helmets and body armor have been found, in broad sirerages, of distinct advantage to the wearers. 3 That body armor, in spite of the protection which it iffords, finds little favor with the soldier. For numerous reasons, he would rather take his chances of injury. 4 The effort should be made, none the less, to demonstrte more clearly the protective value of body armour, to improve its material and design, and to reduce to a minimum the discomfort which will always be experienced by its wearer,-in a word, to meet the objections to the use of armor which have been brought up on the sides both of theory and of practice. In preparing the following pages I have sought and secured aid from man sources. I am most of all indebted to the Department of War of the United States, for access to documents and materials as well as for permission to make use of them in publication. The theme of the present studies touched matters of no little practical importance the Secretary of ir, Mr. Baker, as well as his colleagues, Secretaries Crowell and Keppel, were pleased to show a personnl interest in them as did also General B Pershing, who examined critically a number of models of helmets and body armor which were submitted to him. by former chiefs, Generals C. C. Villirriis, E. T. Bzbhit and J . H. Rice, considered the problems of personal armor attentively and I owe them my thanks for their sympathetic support. For help in many directions I am indebted to other members of the Department to Colonel Perry Osborn, of the Geneml Staff to my colleagues in the Ordnance, CoIonels Schiineifcnig, AIcGregor and Askew to Captains Sinonds, Atainzinger and Peebles and to Lieutenant Kienbusch.