Originally published in 1893. PREFACE: AN increased interest in the history of the exact sciences manifested in recent years by teachers everywhere, and the attention given to historical inquiry in the mathematical class-rooms and seminaries of our leading universities, cause me to believe that a brief general History of Mathematics will be found acceptable to teachers and students. The pages treating necessarily in a very condensed form of the progress made during the present century, are put forth with great diffidence, although I have spent much time in the effort to render them accurate and reasonably complete. Many valuable suggestions and criti cisms on the chapter on quot B ecent Times quot have been made by , I r. E. W. Davis, of the University of Nebraska. ...FLORIAN CAJOBL COLORADO COLLEGE, December, 1893. Contents include: PAGE INTRODUCTION 1 , ANTIQUITY 5 THE BABYLONIANS 5 THE EGYPTIANS 9 THE GREEKS 16 Greek Geometry 16 The Ionic School 17 The School of Pythagoras 19 The Sophist School 23 The Platonic School 29 The First Alexandrian School 34 The Second Alexandrian School 54 Greek Arithmetic 63 TUB ROMANS 77 MIDDLE AGES 84 THE HINDOOS 84 THE ARABS 100 EtJBOPE DURING THE MIDDLE AOES 117 Introduction of Roman Mathematics 117 Translation of Arabic Manuscripts 124 The First Awakening and its Sequel 128 MODERN EUROPE 138 THE RENAISSANCE . . . . 189 VIETA TO DJCSOARTES DBSGARTES TO NEWTON 183 NEWTON TO EULER 199 EULER, LAGRANGE, AND LAPLACE 246 The Origin of Modern Geometry 285 RECENT TIMES 291 SYNTHETIC GEOMETRY 293 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 307 ALGEBRA 315 ANALYSIS 331 THEORY OP FUNCTIONS 347 THEORY OF NUMBERS 362 APPLIED MATHEMATICS 373 INDEX 405 BOOKS OF REFEKENCE. The following books, pamphlets, and articles have been used in the preparation of this history. Reference to any of them is made in the text by giving the respective number. Histories marked with a star are the only ones of which extensive use has been made. 1. GUNTHER, S. Ziele tmd Hesultate der neueren Mathematisch-his torischen JForschung. Erlangen, 1876. 2. CAJTOEI, F. The Teaching and History of Mathematics in the U. S. Washington, 1890. 3. CANToit, MORITZ. Vorlesungen uber Gfeschichte der MathematiJc. Leipzig. Bel I., 1880 Bd. II., 1892. 4. EPPING, J. Astronomisches aus Babylon. Unter Mitwirlcung von P. J. K. STUASSMAIER. Freiburg, 1889. 5. BituTHOHNKiDfflR, C. A. Die Qeometrie und die G-eometer vor Eukli des. Leipzig, 1870. 6. Gow, JAMES. A Short History of Greek Mathematics. Cambridge, 1884. 7. HANKBL, HERMANN. Zur Gfeschichte der MathematiJc im Alterthum und Mittelalter. Leipzig, 1874. 8. ALLMAN, G. J. G-reek G-eometr y from Thales to JEuclid. Dublin, 1889. 9. DB MORGAN, A. quot Euclides quot in Smith s Dictionary of Greek and Itoman Biography and Mythology. 10.