Relaxation and diffusion are general and common phenomena in many branches of condensed matter physics, chemistry and materials sciences. In disordered and partially ordered systems the classes of materials include liquids, colloids, polymers, rubbers, plastic crystals, biomolecules, ceramics, electrolytes, fuel cell materials, molten salts, glasses, and etc. Each class is further subdivided into many different types of materials. For example, glasses vary from metallic glasses, oxide glasses, chalcogenide glasses, polymeric and organic glasses, and each form a separate discipline. In past years research has suffered from undue fragmentation in terms of individual classes of materials. Dr. Ngai was one of the few who recognized the existence of a remarkable universality of relaxation and diffusion properties across the diverse classes of materials, and he suggested that some yet undiscovered fundamental physics is behind this universality
Beginning in 1979 with the publication of two articles in Comment Solid State Physics, Dr. Ngai launched an interdisciplinary study of relaxation and diffusion that has continued to the present. At this time, experimental evidence of universal behavior are plentiful and well substantiated. Dr. Ngai has also created a theoretical framework to characterize, correlate and interpret these universal properties. This book will be of interest to a large number of researchers across many disciplines.
Universal Relaxation and Diffusion Properties in Complex Systems
Theoretical Modeling and Interpretations
Many-Body Relaxation Dynamic and Relation to Chaos
Glass Transition and the Glassy State
Role of Thermodynamics, Volume, Entropy and Temperature
Ionic Conductivity Relaxation in Ionically Conducting Materials
Relaxation and Diffusion at Nanometer Scales
Relaxation in Biomolecules
Über den Autor
Dr. Kia L. Ngai has worked in relaxation and diffusion in disordered and partially ordered systems across many disciplines for 25 years. He has authored or co-authored over 300 publications in archival journals. His works have been cited widely.
Dr. Ngai has also written a chapter in the textbook, Physical Properties of Polymers, 3rd edition (Cambridge University Press, 2003); two chapters in Physical Properties of Polymers Handbook, edited by James E. Mark (Springer), and a chapter in Science and Technology of Rubber (Elsevier). He was the originator and organizer of the following large-scale international conference series entitled "International Discussion Meeting on Relaxations in Complex Systems": 1990, Herklion, Crete, Greece; 1993, Alicante, Spain; 1997 Vigo, Spain; 2001, Hersonissos, Crete, Greece; and 2005, Lille, France. I served as the editor of the Proceedings of each of these Meetings. The proceedings are published as refereed papers in the Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (Elsevier) in 1991, 1994, 1998 and 2002.
Introduction.- Universal Relaxation and Diffusion Properties in Complex Systems.- Experimental Evidences.- Computer Simulations.- Theoretical Modeling and Interpretations.- Many-Body Relaxation Dynamic and Relation to Chaos.- Glass Transition and the Glassy State.- Role of Thermodynamics, Volume, Entropy and Temperature.- Polymer Viscoelasticity.- Ionic Conductivity Relaxation in Ionically Conducting Materials.- Relaxation and Diffusion at Nanometer Scales.- Relaxation in Biomolecules.
The usefulness of the book to the reader is exposure to many different classes of materials and relaxation phenomena. They are tied together by the universal relaxation and diffusion properties they share, and a consistent explanation of their origin. The readers can apply what they learn to solve their own problems and use it as a stepping-stone to make further advances in theoretical understanding of the origin of the universality.
Experimental evidences of universal relaxation and diffusion properties in complex materials and systems are presented. The materials discussed include liquids, colloids, polymers, rubbers, plastic crystals, biomolecules, ceramics, electrolytes, fuel cell materials, molten salts, inorganic, organic, polymeric and metallic glass-formers. The origin of the universal properties is traced to the relaxation dynamic of interacting many-body systems, rigorous theory of which does not exist as this time. However taking advantage of some insight and guides by solutions of much simplified models, predictions of the properties have been generated. The predictions can explain qualitative as well as quantitative in many cases the experimentally observed properties of different complex materials, essentially from the strength of the many-body interaction. The success provides some measure of understanding the relaxation properties of complex interacting systems and also paves the way for the construction of rigorous theories in the future. Change of relaxation dynamics when dimensions are reduced to nanometer scale are also considered and discussed.