Chapter One - Introduction 1. A Brief History of the Use of Sound in the Ocean 2. Ambient Noise in the Sea3 Effects of Sound on Marine Mammals4. Regulation of Noise in the Ocean-Some BackgroundChapter Two - Scientific Aspects of Underwater Sound 1. The Physics of Underwater Sound2. Effects of Acoustic Emissions2.1 Health Threats to Marine Mammals2.2 Health Threats to Humans2.3 Threats to other Marine Life2.4 Acoustic Interference3. Summary - Effects of Acoustic Emissions4. Sources of Naturally-Occurring Sound in the Ocean4.1 Physical and Geophysical Sources4.2 Biological Sources4.3 Sounds from Marine Mammals5. Anthropogenic Sound in the Sea5.1 Is Ambient Noise Increasing?5.2 The Many Uses of Sonar5.3 Shipping and Shipping Trends5.4 Dredging and Coastal Construction5.5 Offshore Oil and Mineral Exploration5.6 Recreational Boating5.7 Fishing and Aquaculture5.8 Military Activities 5.9 Oceanographic Research5.10 Other Sources 5.11 Ambient Noise Summary6. Hotspots - Sensitive Areas of Intense Acoustic Activity6.1 Stellwagen Bank 6.2 The Ligurian Sea 6.3 Other HotspotsChapter Three - Focusing Events 1. What are Focusing Events? 2. The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations 2.1 What are Environmental NGOs? 2.2 Public Perception of Marine Mammals 2.3 The Natural Resources Defense Council 2.4 Other NGOs involved in Ocean Noise Pollution 2.5 The Emergence of New NGOs 3. Key Focusing Events 3.1 Ship Shock Testing 3.2 Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) 3.3 The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) 3.4 Greek Whale Strandings and NATO 3.5 Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System (SURTASS) 3.6 Bahamas Strandings 3.7 Littoral Warfare Advanced Development (LWAD) 3.8 Other Focusing Events 4. Other Factors Contributing to the Noise Controversy Chapter Four - Policy Development 1. Trail Smelter and Regulation of Transboundary Pollutants 2. The Pollution Provisions of the Law of the Sea Convention 3. Ocean Noise as a Transbounday Pollutant 4. Previous Regulation of Transboundary Pollutants 4.1 Thermal Ocean Pollution 4.2 Radiation 4.3 Air Pollution 5. Existing International Regulatory Framework 5.1 The United Nations Environmental Programme 5.2 The International Maritime Organization 5.3 International Whaling Commission 5.4 International Seabed Authority 5.5 The European Union 5.6 The Use of Regional Agreements 5.6.1 The OSPAR Convention 5.6.2 The Arctic Council 5.6.3 ASCOBANS 5.6.4 ACCOBAMS 5.6.5 NATOChapter Five - Politics, Potential Solutions, and Obstacles 1. International Institutions 1.1 The Value of International Regimes and Organizations 1.2 GESAMP 1.3 The Development of an International Treaty 2. Conventional Approaches to Pollution Control 3. Policy Instruments for Addressing Ocean Noise Pollution 3.1 Taxes 3.2 Performance Bonds and Subsidies 3.3 Permits 3.4 Technological Standards- BAT and BPT 3.5 Best Practicable Environmental Option 3.6 Bans and Zoning 3.7 Marine Protected Areas 4. The Trend Toward Ecosystem Based Ocean Management 5. Policy Instruments - A SummaryChapter Six - The Use Of Marine Protected Areas 1. Unilateral MPAS in the U.S. and Abroad 2. Multilateral MPAs 3. The Potential of MPAs to Prevent Acoustic Disturbance 4. Zoning in MPAs 4.1 Activity-Specific Zones 4.2 Individual Source-Specific Zones 4.3 Buffer Zones 5. Challenges in Implementing MPAs and ZoningChapter 7 - Conclusion 1. The Politics of Policy-Making 1.1 Where is the Issue of Ocean Noise? 1.2 Incrementalism and Public Policy 2. Summary of Findings Appendix A - Glossary Appendix B - List of Acronyms Bibliography
Numerous incidents suggest that man-made sound injures and can kill marine mammals. This book offers an objective look at how ocean noise should be addressed given the lack of regulatory structure and the scientific uncertainty over the effects of noise on marine life. It is an essential text for policymakers, governments and NGOs, biologists, environmental activists, , oceanographers, and those in the shipping, engineering, and offshore oil and gas industries.
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