Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams of Lead-Free Solder Materials.- Phase Diagrams of Pb-Free Solders and their Related Materials Systems.- The Effects of Suppressed Beta Tin Nucleation on the Microstructural Evolution of Lead-Free Solder Joints.- Development of Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Ag-Cu-X Alloys for Pb-free Electronic Solder Applications.- Rare Earth Additions to Lead-Free electronic solders.- Compression Stress-Strain and Creep Properties of the 52In-48Sn and 97In-3Ag Low Temperature Pb-Free Solders.- Sn-Zn Low Temperature Solders.- Composite Lead-Free Electronic Solders.- Processing and Material Processing Issues Related to Lead-free Soldering.- Interfacial Reaction Issues for Lead-Free Electronic Solders.- Deformation Behavior of Tin and some Tin Alloys.- Microstructure-Based Modeling of Deformation in Sn-Rich (Pb-free) Solder Alloys.- Mechanical Fatigue of Sn-rich Pb-free Solder Alloys.- Life Expectancies of Pb-free SAC Solder Interconnects in Electronic Hardware.- Studies dealing with Sn-based solder joint behavior under thermal excursions encountered in service environments.- Electromigration Statistics and Damage Evolution for Pb-Free Solder Joints with Cu and Ni UBM in Plastic Flip-Chip Packages.- Electomigration Issues in Lead-Free Solder Joints.- Stress Analysis of Spontaneous Sn Whisker Growth.- Whisker Growth Issues.- Tin Pest Issues in Lead-Free Electronic Solders.- Issues Related to the Implementation of Pb-free Electronic Solders in Consumer Electronics.- Impact of the ROHS Directive on High Performance Electronic Systems: Part I-Need for Lead Utilization in Exempt Systems, Part II-Key Reliability issues Preventing the Implementation of Lead-Free Solders.
Even though the effect of lead contamination on human health has been known for decades, very little attention has been paid to lead-based solders used in electronics until recently. This comprehensive book examines all the important issues associated with lead-free electronic solder. It collects the work of researchers recognized for their significant scientific contributions in the area.
Contributions are from world wide research leaders
Comprehensive in scope
Each chapter focuses on a single issue and addresses the current understanding of the subject, the problems that still need to be tackled and suggestions for potential approaches to do so