EARLY BIOMEMS, MULTI-SENSOR NEUROPROBES
2. Evolution of micro-sensor array designs for medical research. 2.1 Electrical signal monitoring. 2.2 Sensor Design Evolution: from 2D to 3D. 2.3 Chamber-Type Electrochemical Oxygen Sensors.
3. Other Applications - the first micro-fluidic device.
MULTI-PARAMETER BIOMEMS FOR CLINICAL MONITORING
2. Biosensors. 2.1 Principle of Biosensors. 2.2 Amperometric Biosensors. 2.3 Aspects of miniaturization and integration
3. Clinical Monitoring. 3.1 Multi-analyte measurement. 3.2 Microdialysis. 3.3 BioMEMS for clinical monotoring. 3.4 Multi-parameter monitoring. 3.5 Applications. 3.5.1 Monitoring of glucose and lactate with a micro-dialysis probe. 3.5.2 Ammonia monitoring.
4. Conclusions and outlook.
NEURAL IMPLANTS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE Interfacing neurons for neuro-modulation, limb control, and to restore vision - Part I
1. Introduction to Neural Implants.
2. Anatomical and Biophysical Fundamentals. 2.1 Peripheral Nerve Anatomy. 2.2 Mechanisms of Peripheral Nerve Damage. 2.3 Excitability of Nerves. 2.4 Electrical Modeling of the Nerve Membrane. 2.5 Propagation of Action Potentials. 2.6 Extra-cellular Stimulation of Nerve Fibres. 2.7 Selective Activation of Nerve Fibres.
3. Clinical Implants. 3.1 Electrodes - The Key Component in Neural Prostheses. 3.2 Cardiac Pacemakers. 3.3 Implantable Defibrillators. 3.4 Cochlea Implants. 3.5 Phrenic Pacemakers. 3.6 Grasp Neuroprostheses. 3.7 Neuroprostheses for gait and posture. 3.8 Spinal Root Stimulator. 3.9 Drop Foot Stimulator. 3.10 Neuro-modulation. 3.11 Deep Brain Stimulation. 3.12 Vagal Nerve Stimulation.
BIOMEDICAL MICRODEVICES FOR NEURAL IMPLANTS Interfacing neurons for neuromodulation, limb control, and to restore vision - Part II
1. The Challenge of Microimplants.
2. Vision Prostheses. 2.1 Cortical Vision Prostheses. 2.2 Optic Nerve Vision Prosthesis. 2.3 Retinal Implants. 2.3.1 Subretinal Vision Prostheses. 2.3.2 Epiretinal Vision Prostheses. 2.4 Conclusions on Vision Prostheses.
3. Periphereral Nerve interfaces. 3.1 Non-Invasive Nerve Interfaces. 3.2 "Semi"-Invasive Interfaces. 3.3 Invasive Interfaces. 3.3.1 Intrafascicular Electrodes. 3.3.2 Needle-Like Electrodes. 3.3.3 Regenerative type electrode. 3.4 Biohybrid Approaches.
4. Future Applications. 4.1 Interfacing the Brain. 4.2 Spinal Cord Implants. 4.3 Multi-modal Neural Implants.
5. Concluding Remarks.
6. Neural Implants: Boon or Bane?
2. What is a micro-fluidic platform.
3. Examples of micro-fluidic platforms. 3.1 PDMS based Micro-fluidics for Large Scale Integration ("Fluidigm platform"). 3.2 Micro-fluidics on a Rotating Disk ("Lab-on-a-Disk"). 3.3 Droplet based micro-fluidics (DBM). 3.3.1 DBM based on electro-wetting. 3.3.2 DBM based on surface acoustic waves. 3.3.3 DBM based on two phase liquid flow. 3.4 Non-contact liquid dispensing. 3.4.1 "Dispensing Well Plate" for "High Throughput Screening". 3.4.2 "TopSpot print heads" for "High Throughput Fabrication of Microarrays".
DNA BASED BIO-MICRO-ELECTRONIC MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
1. Introduction. 1.1 The unique features of nucleic acids. 1.2 Lab on the Chip. 1.2.1 Electrophoresis. 1.2.2 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). 1.3 Biochemical reaction chains for integration: biosensors and the "lab biochip".
2. Microarrays and Biochips based on DNA. 2.1 The typical microarray experiment. 2.2 Manufacturing of Microarrays. 2.2.1 Synthesis on the chip. 2.2.2 Spotting techniques. 2.3 Transcription Analysis. 2.4 Oligonucleotide Arrays for sequencing. 2.5 Active arrays. 2.5.1 Enzymes acting on immobilised DNA. 2.5.2 PCR on the Chip. 2.6 Integrated PCR. 2.6.1 Micro-chamber Chips. 2.6.2 Micro-fluidic Chips.
3. Nano-biotechnology: DNA as material. 3.1 DNA directed immobilisation and nucleic acid tags. 3.2 DNA for regular structures. 3.3 DNA to structure surfaces. 3.3.1 Stretching of DNA by fluidics. 3.3.2 Stretching DNA by AC electric fields. 3.4 Metallisation of DNA for electronic circuits.
SEPARATION AND DETECTION ON A CHIP
2. Theory of capillary electrophoresis on a CE chip. 2.1 Mobility of ions. 2.2 Electro-osmotic flow.
3. Joule heating in microfabricated devices. 3.1 Separation efficiency of a CE chip. 3.2 Separation of biomacromolecules and particles.
4. Building blocks of CE chip devices. 4.1 Wafer materials, micromachining and wafer bonding. 4.2 Power supplies, pumping, injection and channel geometries. 4.3 Detection strategies.
5. Selected examples for CE on a chip.
PROTEIN MICROARRAYS : TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS
2. Forward Phase Protein Microarrays. 2.1 Protein Expression Analysis Using Protein Microarrays. 2.2 Protein Interaction Microarrays.
3. Reverse Microarrays.
LAB-ON-A-CHIP SYSTEMS FOR CELLULAR ASSAYS
2. Design and Fabrication of Chips for Cell Based Assays.
3. Cell Culture on Chips and Micro-fluidic Systems.
4. Detectable Cellular Output Signals. 4.1 Cell Metabolism. 4.1.1 Extra-cellular Acidification. 4.1.2 Cellular Oxygen Exchange. 4.1.3 Miscellaneous Metabolic Parameters. 4.2 Cell Morphology. 4.3 Electrical Patterns.
5. Cell Manipulation on Chips.
6. Conclusions and Future Prospects.
NETWORK ON CHIPS Spatial and temporal activity dynamics of functional networks in brain slices and cardiac tissue
2. Technical Aspects and Underlying Assumptions. 2.1 System requirements.
3. Origin of the signal recorded.
4. Spatial resolution.
5. LFP and plasticity.
6. Network dynamics and epileptiform activity.
7. Drug Testing with MEAs. 7.1 Using Network Properties as Endpoints in Drug Assays. 7.2 Assessing Distributions of Neuronal Responses to Dopamine. 7.3 Cardiopharmacology.
8. Data Analysis.
BIO-NANO-SYSTEMS overview and outlook
2. Basic concepts and experimental methods. 2.1 Self-assembly. 2.2 Optical properties of semiconducting nanocrystals. 2.3 Optical properties of metal nanocrystals. 2.4 Magnetic nanoparticles. 2.5 Conjugation of nanomaterials and biomolecules. 2.6 Bioanalysis with bio-nano-systems. 2.6.1 DNA detection. 2.6.2 Immunoassays 2.6.3 Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). 2.7 Imaging.
3. Applications. 3.1 DNA detection. 3.1.1 DNA detection by spectral shift. 3.1.2 DNA detection by Mie scattering. 3.2 Immuno assays. 3.2.1 Immuno assay on microtiter plate. 3.2.2 Immuno assays on polymer beads. 3.2.3 FRET with nanocrystals. 3.3 Imaging.
4. Conclusion and Outlook.
Explosive growth in the field of microsystem technology (MST) has introduced a variety of promising products in major disciplines from microelectronics to life sciences. Especially the life sciences and health care business was, and is expected to be a major market for MST products. Undoubtedly the merging of biological sciences with micro- and nanoscience will create a scientific and technological revolution in future. Microminiaturization of devices, down to the nanoscale, approaching the size of biological structures, will be a prerequisite for the future success of life sciences. Bioanalytical and therapeutic micro- and nanosystems will be mandatory for system biologists in the long run, to obtain insight into morphology, the function and the interactive processes of the living system. With such a deeper understanding new and personalized drugs could be developed leading to a revolution in life sciences. Today, microanalytical devices are used in clinical analytics or molecular biology as gene chips. In parallel, standard microbiomedical products are employed in the intensive care and surgical theatre, mainly for monitoring and implantation purposes. The gap between these two different scientific fields will be closed, however, as soon as functional micro devices can be produced, allowing a deeper view into the function of cells and whole organisms.
Here, a new discipline evolved which focuses on microsystems for living systems called "BIOMEMS". In this review at a glance the exciting field of bio-microsystems, from their beginnings to indicators of future successes are presented. It will also show that a broad penetration of micro and nano technologies into biology and medicine will be mandatory for future scientific and new product development progress in life science.
Dealing with this topic in general
Gives a comprehensive overview
Teaches basics of Biomems
Introduction and outlook of a new scientific avenue
Combination of biology/medicine and Microsystems Technology