We both found ourselves working on water-soluble polymers for oil recovery in the early 1980' s. Our previ ous backgrounds i nvo 1 ved the synthesi sand characteri zati on of hydrocarbon polymers for everythi ng from elastomers to plastics. As such, we were largely unprepared for the special difficulties associated with water soluble polymers in genera 1, and thei ruse in enhanced oi 1 recovery (EOR) , in parti cul ar. Oil patch applications have a jargon and technical heritage quite apart from that usually experienced by traditional polymer scientists. At that time, no books were available to help us "get up to speed" in the polymers for oil recovery field. Since then, there have been a number of symposia on this topic, but still few books, especially from the polymer (rather than the field-applications) perspective. Synthetic water soluble/swellable polymers have commercial importance in such application as water treatment, cosmetics, and foods. Yet, these polymers have not received the scientific/technological attention they deserve. The application of water soluble polymers to oil recovery has, in fact, highlighted the need for new water based materials, and a fundamental understanding of their structure and use. Interest has been spurred not only for the potenti a 1 economi c credi ts from enhanced oi 1 recovery and an augmented polymers business, but also by the challenge of designing water soluble polymers for harsh environments.
Overview.- The Role of Polymers in Enhanced Oil Recovery.- A Review of Synthesis, Characterization, and Properties of Complex Polymers for Use in the Recovery of Petroleum and Other Natural Resources.- Propagation of Polymer Slugs Through Adsorbent Porous Media.- The Simulation of Polymer Flow in Heterogeneous Porous Media.- Correlation of the Flow of Flocon 4800 Biopolymer with Polymer Concentration and Rock Properties in Berea Sandstone.- Polymer Chemistry/Preparation.- High Temperature and Hardness Stable Copolymers of Vinylpyrrolidone and Acrylamide.- Vinyl Sulfonate/Vinyl Amide Copolymers as Temperature- and Salt-Stable Thickeners for EOR Flooding Processes.- Thermally Stable Acrylic Polymer for Profile Modification Applications.- Hydrophobically Associating Polymers.- Structurally Tailored Macromolecules for Mobility Control in Enhanced Oil Recovery.- Behavior of Polyampholytes in Aqueous Salt Solution.- The Aqueous Conformation and Solubility of Polyvinylpyrrolidone in Relation to the Use of Polymers in Oil Recovery.- Polymer Characterization.- Size Characterization of EOR Polymers in Solution.- Absolute MWD's of Polyacrylamides by Sedimentation and Light Scattering.- A Comparative Study of Xanthans by Light Scattering.- Conformational Analysis of Xanthan and Welan Using Electron Microscopy.- Dynamic Uniaxial Extensional Viscosities and Their Importance in the Mechanical Stability of Water-Soluble Carbohydrate Polymer Solutions.- Thermally Promoted Hydrolysis of Polyacrylamide.- Role of Imidization in Thermal Hydrolysis of Polyacrylamides.- Evaluation of Polymers for Oilfield Use: Viscosity Development, Filterability and Degradation.- Crosslinked Polymers.- The Application of Gels in Enhanced Oil Recovery: Theory, Polymers and Crosslinker Systems.- Laboratory Evaluation of Crosslinked Polymer Gels for Water Diversion.- Study of Intra-Molecular Crosslinking of Polyacrylamide in Cr(III)-Polyacrylamide Gelation by Size-Exclusion Chromatography, Low-Angle Laser Light Scattering, and Viscometry.- Detection of Microgels in EOR Polymers Using Microcapillary Flow.
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