Observational Studies * Randomized Experiments * Overt Bias in Observational Studies * Sensitivity to Hidden Bias * Models for Treatment Effects * Known Effects * Multiple Reference Groups in Case-Referent Studies * Multiple Control Groups * Coherence and Focused Hypotheses * Constructing Matched Sets and Strata * Planning An Observational Study * Some Strategic Issues
A sound statistical account of the principles and methods for the design and analysis of observational studies. Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of basic probability and statistics, but otherwise the account is reasonably self- contained. Throughout there are extended discussions of actual observational studies to illustrate the ideas discussed, drawn from topics as diverse as smoking and lung cancer, lead in children, nuclear weapons testing, and placement programs for students. As a result, many researchers will find this an invaluable companion in their work.
An observational study is an empirical investigation of the effects of treatments, policies or exposures. It differs from an experiment in that the investigator cannot control the assignment of treatments to subjects. Scientists across a wide range of disciplines undertake such studies.