Preface.- The Sun.- The Solar Structure.- The Photosphere.- Observing the Solar Surface.- The Chromosphere.- The Corona.- The Solar Wind.- 3-D Topology of the Magnetic Field.- Observing the Outer Layers.- Time Scales of Solar Variability.- Solar Terrestrial Relations.- Naked-eye Sunspots.- The Human Eye as a Detector of Light.- Visibility Criteria.- Naked-eye Sunspot Observations.- Naked-eye Sunspots and Temporal Evolution of Solar Activity.- Solar Drawings.- Pretelescopic Instruments.- The Invention of the Telescope.- First Telescopic Observations of Sunspots.- The Maunder Minimum.- The Rise of Solar Activity and the Dalton Minimum: 18th and 19th Centuries.- Sunspots Drawings in the Photography Era.- The First Granulation Drawings.- Sunspot Fine Structures.- Faculae.- White-light Flares.- The Outer Layers of the Sun.- The Influence of the Eye in Solar Drawings.- Physics from Drawings.- Modern Solar Drawings.- Solar Eclipses.- The Basics of Solar Eclipses.- Historical Solar Eclipse Observations.- Science Using Early Reports of Solar Eclipses.- The Solar Diameter and the Astronomical Unit.- The Earth's Orbit.- Measuring the Known World.- Observing Methods of Solar Diameter.- Theoretical Background.- Long-term Variations.- Planetary Transits.- Terrestrial Aurorae and Solar-Terrestrial Relations.- Auroral Physics in Brief.- Folklore, Omen and Myths.- Reports During the Last Two Millennia.- The Search for the Cause.- Catalogues of Aurorae Observations.- Aurorae and Secular Solar Activity.- Aurora and Great Space Weather Events.- Reconstruction of Solar Activity During the Telescopic Era.- Wolf's Reconstruction.- The Reconstruction by Hoyt and Schatten.- Improving and Finding Lost Observations.- Final Comments.- Index.
Über den Autor
M. Vázquez is a senior solar astronomer and author of "Ultraviolet Radiation in the Solar System", already published by Springer in 2005
J.M.Vaquero has written approximately thirty papers about the use of historical observations and measurements in modern astronomical and geophysical studies
The Sun is nowadays observed using di?erent techniques that provide an almost instantaneous 3-D map of its structure. Of particular interest is the studyofthevariabilityinthesolaroutputproducedbythedissipationofm- netic energy on di?erent spatial and temporal scales - the so-called magnetic activity. The 11-year cycle is the main feature describing this phenomenon. Apart from its intrinsic scienti?c interest, this topic is worth studying because of the interaction of such processes with the terrestrial environment. A ?eet of space and ground-based observatories are currently monitoring the behaviour of our star on a daily basis. However, solar activity varies not only on this decadal time-scale, as has been attested mainly through two methods: (a) records of the number of sunspots observed on the solar surface from 1610, and (b) the records of 14 10 cosmogenic isotopes, such as Cand Be, measured in tree-rings and i- cores, respectively. The study of the long-term behaviour of solar activity may be comp- mented by the study of historical accounts describing phenomena directly or indirectly related to solar activity. Numerous scienti?c and non-scienti?c d- uments have reported these events and we can make use of them as a proxy of solar activity in past times.
An updated reference on the time variation of solar activity in the last thousand years
An essential resource on the evolution of solar observations
A primary reference for solar amateur astronomers doing observations with simple techniques
A description on the impact of astronomical phenomena on the society