Autism Spectrum Disorders: Clinical and Medical Perspectives.- The Male Prevalence in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Hypotheses on its Neurobiological Basis.- Neuroanatomical-Behavioral Correlates in Autism: A Working Hypothesis.- The Morphology of Minicolumns.- The Developmental Neuropathology of Autism.- Understanding Alterations During Human Brain Development with Molecular Imaging: Role in Determining Serotonin and GABA Mechanisms in Autism.- Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD) as a Biomarker of GABAergic Activity in Autism: Impact on Cerebellar Circuitry and Function.- Epigenetic Dysregulation of 15q11-13 GABAA Receptor Genes in Autism.- Cholinergic Component of Autism Spectrum Disorder.- Oxytocin and Autism.- The Role of the Noradrenergic System in Autism Spectrum Disorders.- Oxidative Stress in Autism and Its Implications for Dopamine-Stimulated Phospholipid Methylation.- Neuroligins and Neurexins: Synaptic Bridges Implicated in Autism.- The Neurophysical Chemistry of Autism: Postulates from Intelligence Modeling.- Pharmacological Treatment of Autism.
Withtherecentlyperceivedincreaseinincidenceofautismandtherealizationthat "autism"mayactuallybe"autisms"withsubsetsofaffectedindividuals,researchers have been pursuing the possibility that there may be multiple etiologies for the disorder.Althoughmostautismstudieshavefocusedongeneticsandadvancedn- roimaging,thereisapaucityofresearchaimedatdeterminingtheneurochemical basisofautism.Identifyingcoreneuralsubstratesorkeybiomarkersisessentialto understandingthemechanisticbasisthatmayinpartunderlie"autisms."Alterations inmolecules,proteins,receptors,andsynapticelementsaresomeofthecontrib- ingsubstratesthatcouldresultinaltereddevelopmentalprocesses,changedsynaptic function,andaberrationsinconnectivity.Itisnowapparentthatmultiplebrainareas are affected in autism, and neuropathological defects have been described within corticalandsubcorticalnetworks.Althoughrecentprogresshasbeenmadeinid- tifyingsomeofthegenesthatmayunderliethedisorder,muchattentionhasalso beengiventoepigeneticand/orenvironmentalfactorsthatmaycontributetosubsets ofautisticindividuals. The contributors to this book were hand selected because of their expertise in their respective ?elds. Individually each chapter presents a unique perspective into the clinical, developmental, neurochemical, and/or physical chemical basis of autism. The contributing authors summarize current research ?ndings in their respective areas and also present novel ideas and propose hypotheses and p- sible mechanisms that may be operative during development and the potential consequencesofhavingdefectsinspeci?cmolecules,receptors,orgenes. Thesubtitle"FromMoleculestoMinicolumns"wasinsertedbecauseofmuch recent attention given to alterations in the basic organization of mini- or mic- columns of neurons in cerebral cortical areas in autism. These especially include prefrontalcorticalareasthatundergoanovergrowthduringearlypostnataldevel- mentinmanyindividualswithautism.Tothisend,theworldrenownedDr.Alan Peters,theneuroanatomistthatorigina